Computational Modelling Group

Algorithms and computational methods

Categories within this topic include Agent-Based Negotiation (3), Agents (48), Artificial Neural Networks (10), Boundary elements (6), Cellular automata (15), Classification (8), Computer Vision (1), Density functional Theory (15), Distributed computing (7), Evolutionary Algorithms (14), FFT (25), Finite differences (50), Finite elements (38), Finite volume (21), Game Theory (10), Geographic Information Systems (12), Graph Theory (6), Inverse problems (6), Kinetic Monte Carlo (1), Lattice Field Theory (10), Machine learning (10), Maximum Likelihood (1), Meshless methods (3), Minimum Energy Paths (2), Molecular Dynamics (28), Molecular Mechanics (9), Monte Carlo (42), Multi-core (21), Multi-physics (29), Multi-scale (26), Multigrid solvers (7), Multipole methods (2), Optimisation (30), Quantum Chemistry (11), Quantum Computation (5), Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (2), statistical analysis (23), Stochastic Pi Calculus (1), Support Vector Machine (4), Symbolic calculation (2)

All Projects

A Fast Multipole Method for the Bessel potential

Marc Molinari, Simon Cox (Investigators), Neil O'Brien

The fast multipole method (FMM) proposed by Greengard and Rokhlin provides a method by which the O(N-squared) many-body problem can be reduced to O(N) complexity. In this project, a multipole method is developed to calculate the energy of a system of vortices in a high temperature superconductor, where the many-body interactions give rise to rich and complex physics. The method developed here is suitable for systems where the interactions are governed by a Bessel potential rather than the usual logarithmic potentials occurring in gravitational and electrostatic problems. We derive and apply vectorised forms of the Gegenbauer addition formulae in order to achieve the O(N) scaling associated with fast multipole methods.

A habitat suitability model for predicting coral reef distributions in the Galápagos Islands

Terence Dawson (Investigator)

As part of a wider project developing a conservation strategy for the marine environment of the Galapagos Islands, this research used multi-variate modelling techniques to develop a habitat suitability prediction model for coral reefs.

A novel approach to analysing fixed points in complex systems

James Dyke (Investigator), Iain Weaver

This work aims to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between complexity and stability. By describing an abstract coupled life-environment model, we are able to employ novel analytical, and computational techniques to shed light on the properties of such a system.

A novel method for monitoring air pollution from satellites at very high resolution

Joanna Nield, Jason Noble, Edward Milton (Investigators), Robin Wilson

Developing methods to monitor the clarity of the atmosphere from satellites at 100,000 times the resolution of previous methods. This can then be used to monitor air pollution, correct satellite images and provide data for climate studies. Simulation is used to model the effects of atmospheric pollution on light passing through the atmosphere, and to test the method under 'synthetic atmospheres'.

A spatially-explicit agent-based model of jaguar population dynamics

Jason Noble, Patrick Doncaster (Investigators), Angela Watkins

A single species spatially-explicit agent-based model has been developed that illustrates the role of simulation modelling, integrated with an adapted least-cost modelling approach and real-world geographical data, in exploring jaguar population dynamics.

Ab initio simulations of chemical reactions on platinum nanoparticles

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Álvaro Ruiz-Serrano, Peter Cherry

•Use first principles calculations to study the relationship between shape and size of nanoparticle and the oxygen adsorption energy.

• Investigate the effect of high oxygen coverage on the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles.

Adding social ties to the Schelling model

Seth Bullock, Sally Brailsford (Investigators), Elisabeth zu-Erbach-Schoenberg

The Schelling model is an abstract model for segregation in
a spatially arranged population. We extended the traditional model by the addition of a dynamic social network. The social network influences the spatial dynamics of agents moving on the grid by changing the agents’ evaluation of their neighbourhood. In turn, the spatial arrangement influences the change of the social network.

Advanced modelling for two-phase reacting flow

Edward Richardson (Investigator)

Engine designers want computer programs to help them invent ways to use less fuel and produce less pollution. This research aims to provide an accurate and practical model for the injection and combustion of liquid fuel blends.

Aerofoil noise

Richard Sandberg (Investigator)

High-performance computing is used to identify noise sources on aerofoils.

Agent-Based Modelling of High Frequency Traders

Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding (Investigators), Alvaro Perez-Diaz

Agent-Based Modelling of High Frequency Traders

Agent-based simulations of jaguar movements through conservation corridors

Jason Noble, Patrick Doncaster (Investigators), Angela Watkins

We present an agent-based model of jaguars (Panthera onca),
scaled for fragmented habitat in Belize where proposals already exist for creating a jaguar corridor. We use a least cost approach to simulate movement paths through alternative possible landscapes.

Amorphous Computation, Random Graphs and Complex Biological Networks

Seth Bullock (Investigator)

This interdisciplinary research collaboration arose within the Simple Models of Complex Networks research cluster funded by the EPSRC www.epsrca.ac.uk through the Novel Computation Initiative. Here, leading groups from the Universities of Leeds, Sheffield, Nottingham, Southampton, Royal Holloway and King’s College and industrial partners BT are brought together for the first time to develop novel amorphous computation methods based on the theory of random graphs.

An Evolutionary Economic Approach to the Household?

Jason Hilton

The household is a fundamental societal unit. In a huge array of contexts, our understanding of social behaviour relies on an interpretation of how decision are taken at the household level.This work aims to model individual decision-making and interactions between individuals explicitly within the framework of agent-based modelling, following the work of Potts (2000). Potts describes how economic problems can better be dealt with by considering how agents with incomplete, evolving preferences in the form of decision rules interact on a network, and how they cooperate and form ties to produce combinatorial technologies. Following the work of Gary Becker, he then considers how this ostensibly economic framework might hypothetically describe partnership search and household formation and dissolution.

An investigation in to the effects of information provision on driver learning

Ben Waterson, Hans Fangohr (Investigators), James Snowdon

This work aims to better understand and model the role of individual learning and experience on driver route choice. We intend to demonstrate that vehicle-driver agent based models stand alone in being able to capture the complex reciprocal interactions between drivers and their environment, and allow us to incorporate the effects of prior knowledge from previous trips and advice from official information sources and social networks.

An Investigation into the Cascade Effect of Mergers on the Global Financial Markets

Seth Bullock, Antonella Ianni (Investigators), Camillia Zedan

An investigation into the external effects that horizontal mergers have on the interconnected global markets.

Application of RNA-Seq for gene fusion identification in blood cancers

William Tapper (Investigator), Marcin Knut

Gene fusions are often the cause of different blood cancers. As such, accurate identification of them provides information on the underlying cause of a cancer, ensuring appropriate choice of treatment. However, due to shortcomings of the currently applied methods for gene fusion identification, some of them escape undetected. We are employing RNA-Seq, a cutting-edge method for sequencing RNA, the messenger of genetic information, to investigate gene fusions.

Assessment of the performance of novel RANS and hybrid turbulence models on the flow around a cylinder

Manuel Diaz Brito

The turbulent flow around a circular cylinder is a widely studied problem in fluid dynamics. At a certain characteristic Reynolds numbers the development of a turbulent wake occurs simultaneously with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The mechanisms defining this critical flow state are very complex to predict computationally. In this project the suitability of novel non-linear eddy viscosity closures and a hybrid Flow Simulation Methodology formulation to face these massively separated flows is studied. The flow predicting capabilities of the baseline EASM, φ-α-EASM and FSM-φ-α-EASM tested are contrasted with the industrial renowned k-ω-SST turbulence model. In the visualisation of the results it is evident that the φ-α-EASM has greater flexibility estimating the components of the Reynolds stresses with respect to the baseline EASM and the k-ω-SST. Although dome differences are observed, the prediction of the critical flow around a cylinder is not accurately achieved by any of these RANS models, but the FSM-φ-α-EASM shows great resemblance with the validation data, demonstrating capabilities of resolving very complex flow phenomena with minimum user input if the computational grid is fine enough. In order to demonstrate even greater advantages of non-linear models it was postulated that the addition of a streamwise impinging vortex hitting the leading edge of the cylinder would make the flow field fully three-dimensional. First attempts were tried in this route but time constraints limited the ultimate scope of the present work.

Associative learning in ecosystems: Network level adaptation as an emergent propery of local selection

Richard Watson, James Dyke (Investigators), Daniel Power

Ecosystems may exhibit collective adaptive properties that arise from natural selection operating on their component species. These properties include the ability of the ecosystem to return to specific configurations of species, in a manner highly analogous to mechanisms of associative learning in neural networks.

Atlantic ocean meridional heat transport at 26oN: Impact on subtropical ocean heat content variability

Robert Marsh (Investigator), Maike Sonnewald

Local climate is significantly affected by changes in the oceanic heat content on a range of timescales. This variability is driven by heat fluxes from both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the Atlantic the meridional overturning circulation is the main contributor to the oceanic meridional heat transport for latitudes south of about 50◦ N. The RAPID project has been successfully monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning at 26◦ N since 2004. This study demonstrates how this data can be used to estimate the basin-wide ocean heat content in the upper 800 m between 26◦ N to 36◦ N. Traditionally the atmosphere is seen to dominate the ocean heat content variability. However, previous studies have looked at smaller areas in the Gulf Stream region, finding that the ocean dominates deseasoned fluctuations of ocean heat content, while studies of the whole North Atlantic region suggest that the atmosphere may be dominant. In our study we use a box-model to investigate fluctuations of the ocean heat content in the subtropical North Atlantic between 26◦ N and 36◦ N. The box-model approach is validated using 19 years of high resolution GCM data. We find that in both the GCM and RAPID based data the ocean heat transport dominates the deseasoned heat content variability, while the atmosphere’s impact on the heat content evolution stabilizes after 6 months. We demonstrate that the utility of the RAPID data goes beyond monitoring the overturning circulation at 26◦ N, and that it can be used to better understand the causes of ocean heat content variability in the North Atlantic. We illustrate this for a recent decrease in ocean heat content which was observed in the North Atlantic in 2009 and 2010. Our results suggest that most of this ocean heat content reduction can be explained by a reduction of the meridional ocean heat transport during this period.

Automated Algorithmic Trading with Intelligent Execution

Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding (Investigators), Ash Booth

In this project, we introduce the first fully automated trading system for real-world stock trading that uses time-adaptive execution algorithm to minimise market impact while increasing profitability com- pared to benchmark strategies.

Automated selection of suitable atmospheric calibration sites for satellite imagery

Robin Wilson, Edward Milton (Investigators)

Ground calibration targets (GCTs) play a vital role in atmospheric correction of satellite sensor data in the optical region, but selecting suitable targets is a subjective and time- consuming task. This project is developing methods to automatically select suitable GCTs, using a combination of remotely sensed multispectral and topographic data.

Automated Trading with Performance Weighted Random Forests and Seasonality

Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding (Investigators), Ash Booth

This project proposes an expert system that uses novel machine learning techniques to predict the price return over these seasonal events, and then uses these predictions to develop a profitable trading strategy.

Automatic Image Retrieval with Soft Biometrics for Surveillance

Mark Nixon, John Carter (Investigators), Daniel Martinho-Corbishley

We're investigating ways to automatically describe and identify pedestrians from surveillance footage using human understandable, soft biometric labels. Our goal is to enable surveillance operators to search for pedestrians in a video network using soft biometric descriptions, and to automatically retrieve these descriptions from CCTV images.

B-meson coupling with relativistic heavy quarks

Jonathan Flynn (Investigator), Ben Samways, Dirk Broemmel, Patrick Fritzsch

We non-perturbatively compute the coupling between B* and B pi meson states relying on relativistic heavy quarks and domain wall light fermions. The coupling is of importance for an effective description of hadronic heavy meson decays.

Bayesian Agent-Based Population Studies: Transforming Simulation Models of Human Migration

This is a cutting-edge project in demographic methodology, funded by the European Research Council (ERC), through the Consolidator Grant ERC-CoG-2016-725232. Its aim is to develop a ground-breaking simulation model of international migration, based on a population of intelligent, cognitive agents, their social networks and institutions, all interacting with one another. The project also aims to transform the study of migration – one of the most uncertain population processes and a top-priority policy area – by offering a step change in the way it can be understood, predicted, and managed.

Bayesian Agents as Models for the Disclosure Behaviour of Pregnant Drinkers

Seth Bullock, Jakub Bijak (Investigators), Jonathan Gray

Examining the feasibility of signalling games, played by Bayesian decision theoretic agents as a model for the disclosure of drinking behaviour by pregnant women to their midwives.

Bioclimatic Architecture

Seth Bullock (Investigator), Nicholas Hill

This was a review report on bioclimatic architecture and how such architecture may be designed by agent-based models inspired by the building behaviour of insects.

Body Forces in Particle Suspensions in Turbulence

Gabriel Amine-Eddine (Investigator), John Shrimpton

The behaviour of multiphase flows is of primary importance in many engineering applications. In the past, experimental observations have provided many researchers with the ability to understand and probe the phenomena and physical processes occurring in such flows. With advancements in modern day computational power, we now have the ability to gain an even greater wealth of knowledge, from what used to be a physical experiment, is now a virtual simulation.

Amine-Eddine, G.H. (2015) Body forces in particle suspensions in turbulence. University of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Doctoral Thesis , 283pp.

Can the principle of Maximum Entropy Production be used to predict the steady states of a Rayleigh-Bernard convective system?

Kevin Oliver, Iain Weaver, James Dyke (Investigators)

The principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) has been successfully used to reproduce the steady states of a range of non-equilibrium systems. Here we investigate MEP and maximum heat flux extremum principles directly via the simulation of a Rayleigh-Bérnard convective system implemented as a lattice gas model.

Can we calculate the pKa of new drugs, based on their structure alone?

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Chris Pittock, Jacek Dziedzic

The pKa of an active compound in a pharmaceutical drug affects how it is absorbed and distributed around the human body. While there are various computational methods to predict pKa using only molecular structure data, these tend to be specialised to only one class of drug - we aim to generate a more generalised prediction method using quantum mechanics.

Care Life Cycle

Seth Bullock, Sally Brailsford, Jason Noble, Jakub Bijak (Investigators), Elisabeth zu-Erbach-Schoenberg, Jason Hilton, Jonathan Gray

This research programme brings together teams of researchers from social sciences, management science and complexity science to develop a suite of models representing the socio-economic and demographic processes and organisations implicated in the UK’s health and social care provision. Integral to the project is working with our partners in the public sector and communicating the results of these models to policymakers allowing them to effectively plan for the future.

Cavity-Mediated Cooling

Peter Horak, Timothy Freegarde (Investigators), Andre Xuereb

Optical resonators enhance the interaction of light with matter while simultaneously acting as a temporal buffer. Both effects can be exploited to generate light-induced friction, or cooling, forces on atoms, molecules, or micromirrors. We investigate various aspects of these effects through numerical simulations, assisted by approximate analytical models, in this EPSRC and ESF sponsored project.

Cellular Automata Modelling of Membrane Formation and Protocell Evolution

Seth Bullock (Investigator), Stuart Bartlett

We simulated the meso-level behaviour of lipid-like particles in a range of chemical and physical environments. Self-organised protocellular structures can be shown to emerge spontaneously in systems with random, homogeneous initial conditions. Introducing an additional 'toxic' particle species and an associated set of synthesis reactions produced a new set of ecological behaviours compared to the original model of Ono and Ikegami.

Centre for Doctoral Training in Next Generation Computational Modelling

Hans Fangohr, Ian Hawke, Peter Horak (Investigators), Susanne Ufermann Fangohr, Ryan Pepper, Hossam Ragheb, Emanuele Zappia, Ashley Setter, David Lusher, Alvaro Perez-Diaz, Kieran Selvon, Thorsten Wittemeier, Mihails Milehins, Stephen Gow, Ioannis Begleris, Jonathon Waters, James Harrison, Joshua Greenhalgh, Rory Brown, Robert Entwistle, Paul Chambers, Jan Kamenik, Craig Rafter

The £10million Centre for Doctoral Training was launched in November 2013 and is jointly funded by EPSRC, the University of Southampton, and its partners.

The NGCM brings together world-class simulation modelling research activities from across the University of Southampton and hosts a 4-year doctoral training programme that is the first of its kind in the UK.

Challenging Topological Prejudice - Automated Airframe Layout Design

Andras Sobester (Investigator), Paul Chambers

Aircraft preliminary design scopes are drastically narrowed by topological prejudice. Modern aircraft have settled on the same 'tube plus wing and cruciform tail' type topology that has been adopted through their ancestry, with no scientific evidence that this layout is optimal. This research project poses the question:

“Given a topologically flexible aircraft geometry that is free of prejudice or bias, would a sophisticated multi-disciplinary optimization process yield a conventional layout?”

Chaotic Analysis of Partial Discharge

Paul Lewin (Investigator), Lyuboslav Petrov

The deterministic character of PD pulses predicted by theory has been shown to be existent for certain PD events. Finding characteristic patterns in phase space enables field-data PD detection with high reliability.

Chip Implementation of a Signal Detector for a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Wireless System

Mark Zwolinski, Basel Halak, Mohammed El-Hajjar (Investigators), Ibrahim Bello

We implement an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for the signal detection of a MIMO receiver.

Complexity in Modelling Electric Marine Propulsive Devices

Suleiman Sharkh, Neil Bressloff, Hans Fangohr (Investigators), Aleksander Dubas

This project involves the simulation of turbulent flow around a marine rim-driven thruster and the complex interaction of flow features involved through computational fluid dynamics. Following this, the optimisation of design parameters using computational fluid dynamics to calculate the objective function is performed and surrogate modelling utilised to estimate optimum design configuration.

Computational chemistry study on the interaction mechanism of imidazolium based ionic liquid lubricants with metal surface

Ugur Mart (Investigator)

We propose a fundamental research to investigate the interaction mechanism of ionic liquids (ILs) with metal surfaces, molecular structure and organization on the surface along with chemical reactions using computational chemistry methods at molecular level.

Computational electromagnetic modelling of 3D photonic structures

Marc Molinari, Darren Bagnall, Simon Cox (Investigators), Asa Asadollahbaik, Elizabeth Hart

Nano-structured materials can provide very specific and often very special optical effects which can be exploited for a large range of optical applications including wavelength filters, LEDs, micro-lasers, HDTV, solar-cell coatings, optical high-Q fibres, diffraction gratings, polarisation devices, optical switches, etc. This research in “Computational Electromagnetic Modelling of 3D Photonic Structures” aims to address the need for accurate and fast three-dimensional modelling, simulation and analysis processes in the photonics industry. A FEM/FDTD software suite will be developed to simulate Maxwell’s field equations and thin-film quantum effects (plasmons) in the visible and near-infrared EM frequency spectrum. The results obtained from running the software on suitable compute clusters will then be compared to the analysis results of experimentally manufactured materials. We will investigate structures occurring in nature such as iridescent butterfly wings, white/black reflecting beetle shells, etc., and aim to optimise artificially designed structures with periodic, quasi-periodic and random configurations.

Computational Methods for Aircraft Noise Prediction

Gwenael Gabard (Investigator), Albert Prinn

The aim of this project is to develop and test an efficient flow acoustics solver based on the finite element method and the potential flow theory.

Continuously Tunable Optical Buffer

Peter Horak (Investigator)

The project aims to design, fabricate and test a novel integrated all-optical buffer device that is based on MEMS technology and provides a continuously tunable delay for optical pulses over a broad wavelength region. Such a device could play a crucial role in future packet-switched optical networks, photonic integrated circuits and coherent light based applications such as optically steered phase array antennas, LIDAR and optical coherence tomography.

This EPSRC funded project is a collaboration between the Optoelectronics Research Centre, Southampton, and University College London.

Controlling Ant-Based Construction

Seth Bullock (Investigator), Lenka Pitonakova

This paper investigates dynamics of ant nest building and shows that algorithms capable of generating ant-like structures can also be used to create nests, shapes of which are imposed from outside of the system.

Coronary Artery Stent Design for Challenging Disease

Neil Bressloff (Investigator), Georgios Ragkousis

In this work, a method has been setup to (i) reconstruct diseased patient specific coronary artery segments; (ii) use the new supercomputer to run many simulations of this complex problem and (iii) assess the degree of stent malapposition. The aim now is to devise a stent delivery system that can mitigate this problem

Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies

Anna Kapinska (Investigator)

Radio galaxies and quasars are among the largest and most powerful single objects known and are believed to have had a significant impact on the evolving Universe and its large-scale structure. Their jets inject a significant amount of energy into the surrounding medium, hence they can provide useful information in the study of the density and evolution of the intergalactic and intracluster medium. The jet activity is also believed to regulate the growth of massive galaxies via the AGN feedback. In this project, through the use of numerical simulations, I explore the intrinsic and extrinsic physical properties of the population of Fanaroff-Riley II (FR II) objects, i.e. their kinetic luminosities, lifetimes, and central densities of their environments. This allows one to investigate evolution of these radio sources across cosmic time, and to discuss the significance of the impact of these sources on the evolving Universe.

Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction to model Three-Dimensional Dynamic Behaviour of Ships in Waves

Pandeli Temarel, Zhi-Min Chen (Investigators), Puram Lakshmynarayanana

In the present study we focus our attention on fluid-structure interactions (FSI) of flexible marine structures in waves by coupling a fluid solver using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural solver using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software.

CRISIS – Complexity Research Initiative for Systemic InstabilitieS

Frank McGroarty (Investigator), Bob De Caux

A new approach to modelling and understanding financial system and macroeconomic risk and instability

Deep Optimisation

Jamie Caldwell

The project will develop the implementation and application of a new optimisation technique. 'Deep optimisation' combines deep learning techniques in neural networks with distributed optimisation methods to create a dynamically re-scalable optimisation process. This project will develop this technique to better-understand its capabilities and limitations and develop GPU implementations. The protein structure prediction problem will be used as the main test application.

DePuy Technology Partnership

Mark Taylor (Investigator), Adam Briscoe

This initiative concerns the transfer of knowledge between three key institutions (University of Southampton, University of Leeds and University of Hamburg) and DePuy International limited. The project is concerned with the ongoing advancement of technology used in orthopaedic devices.

Desiging Near-Capacity Quantum Error Correction Codes

Lajos Hanzo (Investigator), Zunaira Babar

Design efficient quantum error correction codes to correct the errors encountered in a quantum transmission; thus, increasing reliability and robustness of the future quantum systems.

Design of Unmanned Air Vehicles

James Scanlan (Investigator), Robert Entwistle

Using computational modelling of a 3D airspace simulation environment to meet the safety and collision-avoidance requirements of the certification authorities.

Designer 3D Magnetic Mesostructures

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Matteo Franchin, Andreas Knittel

A new electrodeposition self-assembly method allows for the growth of well defined mesostructures. This project's aim is to use this method in order to fabricate supraconducting and ferromagnetic mesostructures. Numerical methods based on well-established models are used in order to characterise the grown structures.

Development of a novel Navier-Stokes solver (HiPSTAR)

Richard Sandberg (Investigator)

Development of a highly efficient Navier-Stokes solver for HPC.

Development of wide-ranging functionality in ONETEP

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Jacek Dziedzic

ONETEP is at the cutting edge of developments in first principles calculations. However, while the fundamental difficulties of performing accurate first-principles calculations with linear-scaling cost have been solved, only a small core of functionality is currently available in ONETEP which prevents its wide application. In this collaborative project between three Universities, the original developers of ONETEP will lead an ambitious workplan whereby the functionality of the code will be rapidly and significantly enriched.

Differences between sexual genetic algorithms and a compositional cooperative co-evolutionary algorithm

Richard Watson (Investigator), Daniel Power

Different algorithms are representative of different genetic processes. This work explores how algorithms representing sexual recombination can solve certain problems that hill climbers cannot.

Diffusion at solute/solvent interfaces

Anatoliy Vorobev (Investigator), Ruilin Xie

We aim to develop the theoretical model that would provide an accurate description for the mixing process of two miscible liquids, and, in particular, would reproduce our experimental optical observations. The model based on the phase-field (Cahn-Hilliard) approach is adopted for the mixture of two miscible liquids. The model takes into account the surface tension effects, the non-Fickian diffusion across the liquid/liquid interface, and hydrodynamic flows that might be generated near the interface by the concentration gradients.

DIPLOS - Dispersion of Localised Releases in a Street Network

Trevor Thomas, Ian Castro (Investigators)

The security threat level from international terrorism, introduced by the UK Security Service, has been classified as either "severe" or "critical" for much of its six-year history, and currently remains as "substantial" (source: MI5 website). Part of the risk posed by terrorist threats involves potential releases of air-borne chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) material into highly populated urbanised areas. Smoke from industrial accidents within or in the vicinity of urban areas also pose risks to health and can cause widespread disruption to businesses, public services and residents. The Buncefield depot fire of 2005 resulted in the evacuation of hundreds of homes and closure of more than 200 schools and public buildings for two days; consequences would have been much more severe if prevailing meteorological conditions had promoted mixing or entrainment of the smoke plume into the urban canopy. In both these scenarios it is crucial to be able to model, quickly and reliably, dispersion from localised sources through an urban street network in the short range, where the threat to human health is greatest. However, this is precisely where current operational models are least reliable because our understanding and ability to model short-range dispersion processes is limited. The contribution that DIPLOS will make is:

1. to fill in the gaps in fundamental knowledge and understanding of key dispersion processes,
2. to enable these processes to be parametrized for use in operational models,
3. to implement them into an operational model, evaluate the improvement and apply the model to a case study in central London

Most of the existing research on urban dispersion has focused on air quality aspects, with sources being extensive and distributed in space. Scientifically, this research is novel in focusing on localized releases within urban areas, and on dispersion processes at short range. Through a combination of fundamental studies using wind tunnel experiments and high resolution supercomputer simulations, extensive data analysis and development of theoretical and numerical models, DIPLOS will contribute to addressing this difficult and important problem from both a scientific research and a practical, operational perspective.

Dipole moment and theoretical spectroscopy: a computational approach

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Valerio Vitale

The present project represents a first step towards the implementation of a new technique to calculate the whole vibrational spectra of molecules in a formally exact way, which fully takes into account anharmonicity and conformational transitions, at a finite temperature, both in gas phase and in solution in a single ab initio molecular dynamics simulation.

Direct Numerical Simulations of transsonic turbine tip gap flow

Richard Sandberg (Investigator)

Direct Numerical Simulations are conducted of the transsonic flow through the tip gap at real engine conditions.

Directing magnetic skyrmion traffic flow with nanoscale patterning.

Hans Fangohr, Ondrej Hovorka (Investigators), Mark Vousden

Skyrmions in magnetic nanostructures may lead to new data storage technologies. Appropriate simulation methodologies are developed and applied.

Discrete ECogeomorphic Aeolian Landscape (DECAL) modelling

Joanna Nield (Investigator)

DECAL is a cellular automaton based model which incorporated mutual feedback processes between geomorphic forcing and ecological growth to investigate fundamental controls, self-organising and non-linear behaviour in semi-arid aeolian dune environments. This project explores landscape evolution and disturbance response, developing a phase-space in which dune fields can be quantified.

Do the adaptive dynamics of host-parasite systems catalyse or constrain sympatric speciation?

Richard Watson (Investigator), Daniel Power

Coevolutionary dynamics affect both parties evolutionary trajectories. When might these affect speciation? This project uses a simulation model to explore the issue.

Dual resolution simulations of lipid membrane systems

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Kieran Selvon

This project aims to shed light on cell membrane mechanisms which are difficult to probe experimentally, in particular drug permiation across the cell membrane. If one had a full understanding of this mechanism, drugs could be designed to easily cross the membrane, or target particular embedded proteins to improve their efficacy. A reliable and robust computational method to asses a molecules permeability would be invaluable in the field of drug design, we seek to perfect such a method.

Dynamag: computational magnonics

Hans Fangohr, Atul Bhaskar (Investigators), Matteo Franchin, Andreas Knittel

Analytical treatment of long range magneto-dipole interactions is a bottle-neck of magnonics and more generally of the theory of spin waves in non-uniform media. This project develops a theoretical framework for analysis of magnonic phenomena in magnetic nano-structures, including isolated nano-elements, arrays of those, and extended magnonic crystals. The DYNAMAG project is funded by the EU FP7 and the DST of India.

Dynamics of interacting magnetic nanoparticles

Thomas Fischbacher (Investigator), Maximilian Albert

The project aims at extending the micromagnetic simulation framework 'nmag' developed at the University of Southampton to enable it to handle dynamic geometries. The extended framework will then be used to study systems such as interacting magnetic nanoparticles.

Early warning signals in climate data

Kevin Oliver, James Dyke (Investigators), Maike Sonnewald

Paleoclimatic records reveal that the Earth’s climate system has undergone sharp transitions between
states. Much work has recently been devoted to assessing how likely the current climate is to undergo such a sharp transition. This is motivated by the severe socioeconomic consequences such dramatic changes would entail. Thus, predicting iminent transitions would be very valuable. This review provides an overview of two promising techniques which could potentially be used to assess the stability of components of the climate system. These techniques are degenerate fingerprinting and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). It is found that degenerate fingerprinting is more widely used, but that DFA could be more suitable. DFA allows for memory in the time-series, and can give better results with less data. However, the DFA technique is best suited for systems close to the transitions, and relies on calibration with the degenerate fingerprinting technique further from the transition. Applying these techniques to forecast transitions is unfortunately impeded by lack of suitable data. Using data from several sources could overcome this. Thus, the techniques could be very valuable if the use of unevenly spaced data from several sources does
not lead to serious loss off accuracy. However, the techniques are still very useful when assessing underlying dynamics in model output and paleooceanographic time-series.

Eddy-resol​ving Simulation​s for Turbomachi​nery Applicatio​ns

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Li-Wei Chen

Traditionally, the design of turbomachinery components has been exclusively accomplished with steady CFD, with Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models being the predominant choice. With computing power continuously increasing, high-fidelity numerical simulations of turbomachinery components are now becoming a valuable research tool for validating the design process and continued development of design tool.
In the current project, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and other eddy-resolving approaches will be performed of turbomachinery components to establish benchmark data for design tools, and to investigate physical mechanisms that cannot be captured by traditional CFD approaches.

Effects of trailing edge elasticity on trailing edge noise

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Stefan C. Schlanderer

This work considers the effect of trailing edge elasticity on the acoustic and hydrodynamic field of a trailing edge flow. To that end direct numerical simulations that are fully coupled to a structural solver are conducted.

Electrostatic embedded energy calculations of proteins, using the ONETEP DFT code

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Stephen Fox, Chris Pittock

Calculating the energy of a biomolecule in solvent, using quantum mechanics (QM) is possible, but extremely challenging, even with linear-scaling QM methods like ONETEP. Using electrostatic embedding, a novel twist on the existing QM/MM method is used to calculate the binding energy of a small ligand to a solvated protein, increasing the accuracy and realism of our general project work.

Evolving Behaviour-Dependent Strategies in Agent Negotiations

Enrico Gerding, Markus Brede (Investigators), Darius Pepe Falahat

We use genetic algorithms to evolve trading strategies for iterative bilateral negotiations between buyers and sellers. In contrast to previous work we evolve purely reactive strategies that base decisions on memories of behaviour in previous negotiation rounds. A paper was written on this research and was published in the proceedings for the European Conference on Artificial Life 2013.

Evolving Resilience to Leverage Based Crashes

Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding (Investigators), Ash Booth

This project analyses the maturation, initiation and evolution of crashes in the financial markets using an agent-based model.

Excitable Boys: An Exploration of the Role of Social Groups in the Self-radicalisation Process Using Agent-based Modelling.

Jason Noble (Investigator), Lewys Brace

This work built upon the seminal work of Sageman (2008), and his hypothesis that the self-radicalisation phenomenon that we are currently witnessing across Europe and the United States stems from self-organising ‘bunches of guys’. More specifically, there was a focus on how individuals can influence one another through social links; and how this can lead to behaviour, similar to deindividuation, arising through their interactions. Complexity theory and agent-based modelling were used in order to explore the interactions that are believed to lie at the heart of this psycho-social phenomenon, and justification is given for this approach. The model presented demonstrated that social bonds can lead to a greater number of individuals ‘rebelling’ against the status quo.

Exploring Higgs Boson Physics Beyond the Standard Model

Alexander Belyaev (Investigator), Marc Thomas

The Higgs Boson has recently been discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The purpose of this project is to look for signs of physics beyond the 'Standard Model' of particle physics by studying properties of this boson.

Fidelity optimisation in an atomic quantum computer

Timothy Freegarde (Investigator), Jack Saywell

Development of optimised composite pulses for atomic quantum computers with the aim of reducing systematic errors in information processing caused by variations in laser intensity and environment.

First Principles Simulation of Glycine Adsorption to Amorphous Silica

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Benjamin Lowe

Understanding the molecular interactions between silica and biomolecules is an important in the fields of Bionanotechnology, Biomimetic Material Science and Prebiotic Chemistry. DFT calculations were performed based on a literature study to better understand the interaction between silica and glycine.

Fluid Dynamics Optimisation of Rim-Drive Thrusters and Ducted Hydrokinetic Generators

Aleksander Dubas, Suleiman Sharkh (Investigators)

This is a Knowledge Transfer Partnership project is a collaboration between the University of Southampton and TSL Technology Ltd. to develop computational fluid dynamics software design tools for modelling and optimising the design of propeller thrusters and water turbine generators.

Fluid Loads and Motions of Damaged Ships

Dominic Hudson, Ming-yi Tan (Investigators), Christian Wood, James Underwood, Adam Sobey

An area of research currently of interest in the marine industry is the effect of damage on ship structures. Research into the behaviour of damaged ships began in the mid nineties as a result of Ro-Ro disasters (e.g. Estonia in 1994). Due to the way the Estonia sank early research mainly focused on transient behaviour immediately after the damage takes place, the prediction of capsize, and of large lateral motions. Further research efforts, headed by the UK MoD, began following an incident where HMS Nottingham ran aground tearing a 50m hole from bow to bridge, flooding five compartments and almost causing the ship to sink just off Lord Howe Island in 2002. This project intends to answer the following questions:
“For a given amount of underwater damage (e.g. collision or torpedo/mine hit), what will be the progressive damage spread if the ship travels at ‘x’ knots? OR for a given amount of underwater damage, what is the maximum speed at which the ship can travel without causing additional damage?”

Fluid Structure Interactions of Yacht Sails

Stephen Turnock (Investigator), Daniele Trimarchi

The research is the main subject of the PhD topic. It regards the application of fluid structure interaction techniques to the domain of yacht sails simulation

Fracturing of small social networks

Seth Bullock, Sally Brailsford (Investigators), Elisabeth zu-Erbach-Schoenberg

A connected social network is a very important factor for the success of groups and organisations. We investigate which factors make a group more resistant to the effects of disagreements which commonly happen in small social networks.

Generating Optimal Ensembles of Earth System Models

Simon Cox (Investigator), Elizabeth Hart, Andras Sobester

GENIE is an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. As with other climate models, the tuning of its parameters is essential for providing reliable long-term forecasts of Earth system behaviour. We apply a multi-objective optimization algorithm to the problem. The aim of the tuning exercise is to find the optimal values for the free parameters that produce and euqilibrium model end state with the closest fit to equivalent observational data.

Generic Operational Simulation of Civil Unmanned Air Vehicle Operations

Hans Fangohr, James Scanlan (Investigators)

This project creates a generic operational simulation of Unmanned Air Vehicle Operations. UAVs can be valued for their mission-suitability and compared against various configurations.

Genetic studies to characterise the role of genetic factors in early-onset breast cancer

Andrew Collins (Investigator), Rosanna Upstill-Goddard

Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, with many distinct subtypes. In the majority of breast cancer cases the causative genetic component is poorly characterised. This study aims to explore both rare and common mutations in early-onset breast cancer patients and the contribution of such variants to disease using a variety of analytic approaches.

Gravitational waves from neutron stars

Ian Hawke (Investigator)

Gravitational waves, once detected, will give information about the extremes of space and time. Compact objects such as neutron stars are perfect locations for generating such waves.

Hadronic structure on the computer

Jonathan Flynn (Investigator), Dirk Broemmel, Thomas Rae, Ben Samways

In experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, the interactions that occur between the colliding particles (protons in this case) can be factorised into a simple scattering between two constituent particles, called quarks, followed by a hadronisation process, which describes the dynamics of forming the bound proton states. Quarks are particles within the proton that bind to form composite particles (hadrons) such as a proton. The scattering process can be computed relatively easily, but hadronisation is intrinsically non-perturbative and hard to calculate. Lattice QCD (computer simulation of QCD on a discrete space-time lattice) provides our only known first-principles and systematically-improvable method to address problems like hadronisation. This project uses Iridis to extract parton distribution amplitudes which are experimentally inaccessible, but needed to describe the quark structure of hadrons.

High-resolution shock-capturing (HRSC) methods for elastic matter in general relativity

Carsten Gundlach, Ian Hawke, Stephanie Erickson (Investigators)

We are designing HRSC methods for numerical simulation of elastic matter coupled to general relativity and later magnetic fields, with the ultimate aim of simulating old neutron stars, which have elastic crusts.

How far can we stretch the MARTINI?

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Ric Gillams

To date, coarse-grained lipid models have generally been parameterised to ensure the correct prediction of structural properties of membranes, such as the area per lipid and the bilayer thickness. The work described here explores the extent to which coarse-grained models are able to predict correctly bulk properties of lipids (phase behaviour) as well as the mechanical properties, such as lateral pressure profiles and stored elastic stress in bilayers. Such an evaluation is crucial for understanding the predictive capabilities of coarse-grained models.

How sensitive is ocean model utility to resolution?

Kevin Oliver (Investigator), Maike Sonnewald

One of the most intriguing problems in recent ocean modeling research is the impact of varying model resolution on model accuracy. Increasing model resolution one includes more of the important processes. However, the increase in accuracy with resolution is unlikely to be linear. Thus, as computational cost increases with resolution, a critical assessment of achieved benefits is prudent. Here we analyse a suite of realistic and compatible global ocean model runs from coarse (1o, ORCA1), eddy-permitting (1/4o, ORCA025) and eddy resolving (1/12o, ORCA12) resolutions. Comparisons of steric height variability (varSH) highlight changes in ocean density structure, revealing impacts on mechanisms such as downwelling and eddy energy dissipation. We assess vertical variability using the covariace of the deep and shallow varSH. Together with assessing isopycnal movements, we demonstrate the influence of deep baroclinic modes and regions where the barotropic flow sheds eddies. Significant changes in the deepwater formation and dispersion both in the Arctic and Antarctic are found between resolutions. The varSH increased from ORCA1 to ORCA025 and ORCA12, particularily in the Southern Ocean and Western Boundary Currents. However, there is no significant covariance between the surface and deep in ORCA1, while ORCA025 and ORCA12 show significant covariance, implying an important missing energy pathway in ORCA1. Comparing ORCA025 and ORCA12 we see significant differences in eddy energy dissipation. We assess the impact of varying model resolution on the mean flow, discussing implications to dissipation pathways on model accuracy, with reference to stochastic parameterisation schemes.

Hunting for Walking Technicolor at the LHC

Alexander Belyaev (Investigator), Azaria Coupe

Now that the LHC experiment at CERN has observed the Higgs boson, the final piece of the particle physics theory called the Standard Model, the focus of theoretical and experimental physicists shifts to what could possibly be discovered next. Phenomenologists, such as myself, straddle this line between theory and experiment, comparing the many theories of physics Beyond the Standard Model to whatever the LHC discovers, even drawing conclusions from what it doesn’t discover. I focus on a theory called Walking Technicolor (WTC), what the LHC would see if it were correct, and what the lack of discovery so far means for the fate of WTC.

Hybrid quantum and classical free energy methods in computational drug optimisation

Jonathan Essex, Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigators), Christopher Cave-Ayland

This work is based around the application of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics to the field of computational drug design and optimisation. Through the application of these theories the calculation of the physical properties of drug-like molecules is possible and hence some predictive power for their pharmaceutical activity in vivo can be obtained.

Hybrid RANS/LES methods

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Markus Weinmann

Novel hybrid RANS/LES methods are developed for more accurate and efficient simulation of flow over complex geometries.

Image Based Modelling of Fluid Flow through Lymph Nodes

Tiina Roose, Bharathram Ganapathisubramani, Geraldine Clough (Investigators), Laura Cooper

In this project we are using images of mouse lymph nodes to investigate the fluid transport pathways through it. The images of the nodes are taken using selective plane illumination microscopy, and synchrotron micro computed tomography. The fluid flow is modelled using Darcy's law in COMSOL Multiphysics and the models are run on the Iridis cluster.

Immunotherapy Research: Modelling MHC Class I Complex Assembly

Timothy Elliott, Jorn Werner (Investigators), Alistair Bailey

This project uses mathematical modelling and simulation to investigate mechanisms by which our cells process and present biological information that is used by our immune system to distinguish between healthy and diseased cells.

Integrating least-cost models with agent-based simulations: example hedgehog responses to fragmented landscapes

Jason Noble, Patrick Doncaster (Investigators), Angela Watkins

This study presents a novel analysis of an agent-based model of hedgehog movements integrated with a least-cost model of hedgehog dispersal and validated in landscapes with a varying degree of habitat fragmentation. A comparison of the fitness of individual agents reveals that incorporating a simple rule into
individual agents, to better mimic movement choices by real hedgehogs, dramatically affects the relationship between individual fitness and fragmentation.

Introducting Defects into the Ising Model

Benjamin Lowe

The well-known Ising model, a model of emergent critical phenomenon and phase transitions, was reimplemented and extended to incorporate the study of defects in the lattice.

Investigation into the Interfacial Physics of Field Effect Biosensors

Nicolas Green, Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigators), Benjamin Lowe

This interdisciplinary research aims to improve understanding of Field Effect Transistor Biosensors (Bio-FETs) and to work towards a multiscale model which can be used to better understand and predict device response.

Investigations of Lymphatic Fluid Flow

Tiina Roose, Bharathram Ganapathisubramani, Geraldine Clough (Investigators), Laura Cooper

The lymphatic system performs three main roles returns interstitial fluid back into the blood stream to maintain tissue fluid homeostasis. The aim of this project is to increase our understanding of how the lymph flows through the system by creating three dimensional fluid structure interaction models of the secondary lymphatic valves and image based models of lymph nodes.

Is fine-scale turbulence universal?

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Patrick Bechlars

Complementary numerical simulations and experiments of various canonical flows will try to answer the question whether fine-scale turbulence is universal.

Is the decline in East African lesser flamingo population a natural concequence of soda ake dynamics?

Seth Bullock

An interdisciplinary approach using palaeoenvironmental data analysis and a modelling is being used investigate the dramatic fluctuations in conditions in the East African Rift Valley soda lakes, and how these changes may be impacting the lesser flamingo population.

It takes all sorts: the mathematics of people’s behaviour in financial markets

Valerio Restocchi (Investigator), Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding

Agent-based models provide a deeper understanding of financial markets than classic models. We model people's behaviour and use agent-based simulations to study financial markets. By analysing the emerging complex dynamics, we achieve a deeper understanding of market participants' behaviours, which are necessary for a deeper comprehension of financial markets themselves.

Jet noise

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Neil Sandham

Direct numerical simulations are used to investigate jet noise.

Kaon to two pion decays in lattice QCD

Jonathan Flynn (Investigator), Elaine Goode, Dirk Broemmel

We calculate kaon decay amplitudes on the lattice so we may compare the Standard Model to experiment.

Lagrangian modelling of ecosystem dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station

Tom Anderson, Seth Bullock (Investigators), Melissa Saeland

Focus in the marine ecosystem modelling community is starting to shift towards the use of Lagrangian, agent-based models as these are believed to produce more realistic results. The basic assumptions behind these models have not been thoroughly tested, and this project aims to undertake a detailed study of Lagrangian marine ecosystem models, before creating one to investigate the dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station (BATS).

Laminar to Turbulent Transition in Hypersonic Flows

Neil Sandham, Heinrich Luedeke

Understanding of laminar to turbulent transition in hypersonic boundary-layer flows is crucial for re-entry vehicle design and optimization. The boundary-layer state directly affects the temperatures on the vehicle surface and its viscous drag. Therefore transition has to be considered to correctly compensate for drag and to properly design the thermal protection system.
For the proposed study, in order to obtain a clear understanding of the transition process, the configuration is kept as simple as possible by varying only a minimum number of parameters affecting transition on a simple test geometry such as a swept ramp at different sweep angles. To investigate the influence of such sweep angles on the transition process in the hypersonic regime, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the turbulent flow field are carried out on the Iridis cluster.

Large-Scale Quantum Chemistry Simulations of Organic Photovoltaics

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Gabriele Boschetto

The aim of this project is to use first principles quantum mechanical calculations to provide a detailed atomic-level understanding of OPV materials and models of bulk heterojunctions on a far larger scale than possible before by using the ONETEP program for linear-scaling first principles quantum mechanical calculations.

Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Nano-Printing Process - Multiscale Modelling, Experimental Validation and Optimization

Kai Luo, Rob Eason (Investigators)

LIFT is a direct-write microfabrication and micro/nano printing technique that has received much attention in the research communities and industries in recent years. It offers significant advantages over other competing printing methodologies and has potential applications in many high-tech high-value industries. The method is modelled, studied and optimised using computational techniques in this work.

Lattice Holographic Cosmology

This project will aim to develop new theoretical field methods and massively parallel computational algorithms to be utilised on both new computational architectures (e.g. Intel Xeon Phi) and existing high performance computers (HPCs).

Lattice Holographic Cosmology

This project will aim to develop new theoretical field methods and massively parallel computational algorithms to be utilised on both new computational architectures (e.g. Intel Xeon Phi) and existing high performance computers (HPCs).

Lattice Holographic Cosmology

Andreas Juttner (Investigator), Matthew Mostert

This project will aim to develop new theoretical field methods and massively parallel computational algorithms to be utilised on both new computational architectures (e.g. Intel Xeon Phi) and existing high performance computers (HPCs).

The ultimate goal is to make predictions for the power spectrum and non-gaussianties of the CMB which would then be falsifiable by comparison to the Planck and WMAP data.

Life assessment methods for industrial steam turbine blade to disc interfaces

Katherine Soady (Investigator)

This is an EngD project sponsored by E.ON New Build and Technology Ltd. which aims to develop the methods currently implemented in life assessment of industrial steam turbine blade to disc interfaces to take account of the surface treatment process (shot peening) which is applied to component before service and after repair.

Lyotropic phase transitions of lipids studied by CG MD simulation and experimental techniques

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Josephine Corsi

A study of the phase behaviour of cationic lipid - DNA complexes such as those used for transfection by coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. Lipid systems studied include DOPE, DOPE/DNA and DOPE/DOTAP/DNA. Structural parameters and phase behaviour observed computationally have been compared with those gained using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and polarising light microscopy techniques.

Magnetic dynamics under the Landau-Lifshitz-Baryakhtar equation

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Weiwei Wang

Magnetic dynamics using the Landau-Lifshitz-Baryakhtar (LLBar) equation that the nonlocal damping is included as well as the scalar Gilbert damping.

Magnon-Driven Domain-Wall Dynamics in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Weiwei Wang

The domain wall motion induced by spin waves (magnons) in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction is studied in this project.

Massively-Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics

Simon Cox, Stephen Turnock, Alexander Phillips (Investigators), James Hawkes

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a numerical method for modelling fluid flows and heat transfer - and is used in many industries. It can be used to model dynamics around aircraft, ships and land vehicles; and also has uses in engine design, architecture, weather forecasting, medicine, computer-generated imagery (CGI) and much more. To harness the full power of CFD, it is necessary to utilise the full power of modern supercomputers. This project aims to improve the scalabilty of existing CFD codes so that more complex problems can be tackled efficiently.

Mathematical modelling of plant nutrient uptake

Tiina Roose (Investigator)

In this project I will describe a model of plant water and nutrient uptake and how to translate this model and experimental data from the single root scale to the root branching structure scale.

Measuring biomolecules - improvements to the spectroscopic ruler

Pavlos Lagoudakis, Tom Brown (Investigators), Jan Junis Rindermann, James Richardson

The spectroscopic ruler is a technique to measure the geometry of biomolecules on the nm scale by labeling them with pairs of fluorescent markers and measuring distance dependent non-radiative energy transfer between them. The remaining uncertainty in the application of the technique originates from the unknown orientation between the optical dipole moments of the fluorescent markers, especially when the molecule undergoes thermal fluctuations in physiological conditions. Recently we introduced a simulation based method for the interpretation of the fluorescence decay dynamics of the markers that allows us to retrieve both the average orientation and the extent of directional fluctuations of the involved dipole moments.

Measuring organisation with statistical complexity

Seth Bullock (Investigator), David Arden

What is a organisation and how can we measure it? In particular, can we automate the process of picking out the emergence of pattern and structure in a noisy system over time?

Meshless Methods for Photonic Crystal Modelling

Kamal Djidjeli, Marc Molinari, Simon Cox (Investigators), Neil O'Brien, Elizabeth Hart

We apply meshless methods to the problems of simulating photonic crystals. The meshless methods utilise compactly-supported radial basis functions (CSRBFs) and offer a promising alternative to the conventional plane-wave expansion method for calculating the band structure of photonic crystals.

Micromagnetic simulation of Magnetoelectric Multiferroics

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Rebecca Carey

The focus of this project is towards the understanding of the magnetic and electric couplings in multiferroic materials, in order to create a magnetoelectric micromagnetic model.

Microstructural modeling of skin mechanics

Georges Limbert (Investigator), Emanuele Zappia

Microstructural modeling of skin mechanics to gain a mechanistic insight into the biomechanics of the skin.

Miscible multiphase systems with phase transition

Andrea Boghi

We aim to develop the computational model for the miscible displacement of liquid occupying a porous bulk, as, for instance, in the processes of vegetable solvent extraction, soil remediation or enhanced oil recovery. All these process includes the dissolution of solute and the displacement of solution from porous media. The focus of our current research work is, therefore, twofold: (i) to develop and verify a theoretical model for an evolving miscible displacement, by taking into account dynamic surface tension and mass diffusion through the interphase boundary, and (ii) to provide a model for the solute/solvent displacement from the porous volume.

Mixed FEM-particle method for nonlinear fluid-structure interaction problems, with applications to maritime engineering

Kamal Djidjeli (Investigator)

Simulating fluid-structure interaction problems involving large flow motions and deformations using particle methods.

Modelling Macro-Nutrient Release & Fate Resulting from Sediment Resuspension in Shelf Seas

Chris Wood

This study involves adapting a previously-published model to take into account the effect resuspension events (both natural and anthropogenic) may have on nutrient dynamics at the sediment-water interface, and hence produce better estimates for the total nutrient budgets for shelf seas.

Modelling micromagnetism at elevated temperature

Hans Fangohr, Kees de Groot, Peter de_Groot (Investigators), Dmitri Chernyshenko


We aim to develop a multiscale multiphysics model of
micromagnetism at elevated temperatures with atomistic simulations for
material parameter. The tool will be used to guide the development of the next generation magnetic data storage technology: heat assisted magnetic recording.

Modelling neuronal activity at the knee joint

Mark Taylor, Tiina Roose (Investigators), Gwen Palmer

The function of the knee joint is reliant on proprioception, which involves the response of nerve endings in the tissues at the joint. This project will be concentrating on the neuronal activity, caused by mechanical stimuli, of the more common receptors found at the knee (Ruffini, Paciniform, Golgi and Nociceptor).

There are three stages to this project:
1. Modelling the behaviour of each individual receptor, with the use of the Hodgkin-Huxley model [1].
2. These models will then be applied to the soft tissues around a knee, where a global deformation of the tissue will result in local stimulation of receptors.
3. The soft tissue models will then be applied to structures in the knee.

[1] - Hodgkin, A.L. and A.F. Huxley, A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. Journal of Physiology, 1952. 117: p. 500-544.

Modelling of neutron star interactions in X-ray binary systems

Malcolm Coe (Investigator), Rory Brown

Investigating the X-ray production mechanisms of binaries containing neutron stars and the decretion disks of Be stars using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH).

Modelling power output and wake effects in tidal stream turbine arrays

William Batten (Investigator), Matthew Harrison, Luke Blunden

The PhD research is regards the investigation of modelling techniques for simplifying turbine simulation so that models of large arrays can be investigated.

Modelling the Combined Effects of Total Ionizing Dose and Random Dopant Fluctuations in sub-100 nm gate-length Transistors

Kees de Groot (Investigator), Eleni Chatzikyriakou

The radiation hardness of state-of-the-art silicon-on-insulator transistors of gate length dimensions of 90 nm and beyond is investigated. The combined effects of oxide charges and random fluctuations of the dopant atoms in silicon are considered. It is demonstrated that a parasitic channel forms at the interface of buried oxide and shallow trench isolation regions of the device and that this effect is aggravated by random dopant fluctuations.

Modelling the Easterlin Effect

Jason Hilton

This project is an attempt to formalise the Easterlin hypothesis in a simulation model and test its plausibility.
The Easterlin Hypothesis, developed by economist Richard Easterlin, purports to describe a mechanism whereby the fertility decisions of a particular cohort of individuals are linked to population level conditions that held sway when they were born The empirical support for the theory is quite strong for the certain periods in the history of the United States, but elsewhere it is circumstantial and patchy. A simulation model may allows us to test under what conditions it may hold and not hold, and also might help inform more general theory building.

Modelling the morphodynamic evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta over centennial time scales

Stephen Darby (Investigator), Balaji Angamuthu

Around 0.5 Billion people live in deltaic environments where they are threatened by flooding and land loss frequently. Yet, our understanding of the threats posed by land dynamic process remains limited. In this work, we try to address this issue through a land dynamic simulation of the largest and most populated of all the deltas, the GBM Delta, using the CFD software Delft3D for a range of climate change and management scenarios. The results provide new insight into the factors controlling past morphodynamics that, in turn, are helpful when assessing the possible trajectories of future evolution.

Molecular Fragments in Inhibitor Design

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Michael Bodnarchuk

Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) has emerged as an important tool in the drug discovery process. Instead of screening entire drug molecules, FBDD screens molecular fragments; constituents which make up drug molecules. A computational approach to identifying fragment binding is currently being sought which also yield binding free energy estimation.

Multi-objective design optimisation of coronary stents

Neil Bressloff, Georges Limbert (Investigators), Sanjay Pant

Stents are tubular type scaffolds that are deployed (using an inflatable balloon on a catheter), most commonly to recover the shape of narrowed (diseased) arterial segments. Despite the widespread clinical use of stents in cardiovascular intervention, the presence of such devices can cause adverse responses leading to fatality or to the need for further treatment. The most common unwanted responses of inflammation are in-stent restenosis and thrombosis. Such adverse biological responses in a stented artery are influenced by many factors, including the design of the stent. This project aims at using multi-objective optimisation techniques to find an optimum family of coronary stents which are more resistant to the processes of in-stent restenosis (IR) and stent thrombosis (ST).

Multi-Scale Modelling of Composite Riser Systems

Adam Sobey (Investigator), Hossam Ragheb

There is an ever increasing interest in exploiting ocean resources at greater depths. At these depths composite materials have a larger separation, in terms of benefits, from traditional steel structures as they offer lower maintenance costs, low weight and high durability. However, there are limited current examples of using composites for these applications meaning that empirical knowledge and specific computational tools are limited. As an example of this lack of knowledge current design guidance gives fatigue safety factors in a range of 15-50. Development of more accurate computational tools will allow an increase in safety and/or reduction of the structure.

A key aspect to increasing the usage of flexible composite risers is the ability to assess the reliability of such structures. Importance Sampling Simulation is becoming the preferred method to assess structures which ideally requires a fast and accurate structural modelling method. Whilst Finite Element Methods can provide an accurate solution to these problems they are slow to run. It is therefore proposed to investigate the use of multiscale modelling to investigate the reliability of such structures. This will involve the development of: a full-scale model to be run in conjunction with fluid mechanics simulations, a higher resolution model to investigate the fatigue hotspot near the seabed and a more local model to simulate the fatigue growth.

Multi-scale simulations of bacterial outer-membrane proteins

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Jamie Parkin

Using Iridis to run multiple simulations, I aim to simulate the outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using X-ray crystal structures of proteins only recently resolved by Bert van den Berg, University of Massachusetts. By modelling the proteins in a realistic P. aeruginosa outer membrane, I aim to gain insight into the binding of these proteins to specific substrates and their function.

Multidecadal Sediment Fluxes to Deltas Under future Environmental Change Scenarios

Stephen Darby (Investigator), Frances Dunn

Coastal deltas, on which over half a billion people live worldwide, maintain elevation above sea level by retaining sediment on their surfaces. The aim of this research is to project future fluvial sediment delivery to 47 deltas under environmental change scenarios to assess the sustainability of deltas environments globally.

Multiscale modelling of biological membranes

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Mario Orsi

Biological membranes are complex and fascinating systems, characterised by proteins floating in a sea of lipids. Biomembranes, besides being the fundamental structures employed by nature to encapsulate cells, play crucial roles in many phenomena indispensable for life, such as growth, energy storage, and in general information transduction via neural activity. In this project, we develop and apply multiscale computational models to simulate biological membranes and obtain molecular-level insights into fundamental structures and phenomena.

Multiscale Modelling of Cellular Calcium Signalling

Hans Fangohr, Jonathan Essex (Investigators), Dan Mason

Calcium ions play a vitally important role in signal transduction and are key to many cellular processes including muscle contraction and cell apoptosis (cell death). This importance has made calcium an active area in biomedical science and mathematical modelling.

Multiscale modelling of neutron star oceans

Ian Hawke (Investigator), Alice Harpole

Type I X-ray bursts are explosions which occur on the surface of some
neutron stars. It is believed that the burning begins in a localised spot in the ocean of the
star before spreading across the entire surface. By gaining a better understanding of X-ray
bursts, it is hoped that tighter limits can be determined for other neutron star properties
such as the radius and magnetic field strength.

Multiscale Relativistic Simulations

There has been recent success in experiments, such as LIGO, in detecting the mergers of celestial objects via the gravitational waves they emit. I will use numerical methods to simulate the inspiral of a black hole/neutron star binary system.

Multiscale Relativistic Simulations

Ian Hawke (Investigator), Alex Wright

There has been recent success in experiments, such as LIGO, in detecting the mergers of celestial objects via the gravitational waves they emit. By implementing numerical methods, we aim to speed up the numerical simulations of these events but up to two orders of magnitudes, and study binary inspirals in greater detail and over much larger timespans.

MXL Project

Mark Taylor, Junfen Shi (Investigators)

‘MXL’ is short for “Enhanced patient safety by computational Modelling from clinically available X-rays to minimise the risk of overload and instability for optimised function and Longevity”. This is an international EU-funded project which the Bioengineering Sciences Research Group at Southampton is involved in. For more information, visit http://www.m-x-l.eu

nano-CMOS

Mark Zwolinski (Investigator), Michael Merrett

Modelling random device variations within systems using nano-CMOS technologies.

Network Analysis of Roman Transport Routes in the Imperial Roman Mediterranean

David Potts

This research is designed to explore the nature of the relationships between Portus, Rome, and other selected ports in the Mediterranean and to establish patterns and the changing nature of trading networks derived from the distribution of known Roman artefacts.

New Forest Cicada Project

Alexander Rogers, Geoff Merrett (Investigators), Davide Zilli, Oliver Parson

Rediscover the critically endangered New Forest cicada with crowdsourced smartphone biodiversity monitoring techniques.

NGCM-0054 - Automatic Code Generation for Computational Science

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Gary Downing

Automatically generate code to solve partial differential equations specified symbolically.

Nmag - computational micromagnetics

Hans Fangohr, Thomas Fischbacher (Investigators), Matteo Franchin, Andreas Knittel, Maximilian Albert, Dmitri Chernyshenko, Massoud Najafi, Richard Boardman

Nmag is a micromagnetic simulation package based on the general purpose multi-physics library nsim. It is developed by the group of Hans Fangohr and Thomas Fischbacher in the School of Engineering Sciences at the University of Southampton and released under the GNU GPL.

Nmag finite difference

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Dmitri Chernyshenko, Matteo Franchin, Massoud Najafi

The goal of this project is to extends the finite element based micromagnetic simulation tool Nmag by the finite difference based extension Nmagfd and so to get an simulation tool where the user can easily switch between the used discretization method.

Non-Perturbative Renormalisation on the Lattice

Jonathan Flynn (Investigator), Dirk Broemmel, Thomas Rae

In this project we compute renormalisation factors for various physical observables in a non-perturbative lattice framework. Renormalisation hereby arises due to a fundamental scale dependence of the physical processes.

Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Atomic Gases in Optical Lattices

Sophie Marika Reed

Many-body, quantum systems exhibit emergent properties which allows for quantum events to influence properties on macroscopic scales. Such emergent properties are studied using stochastic phase-space techniques.

Nonlinear Optical Pulse Propagation

Peter Horak, Francesco Poletti (Investigators)

The work is concerned with the propagation of high-power short-pulse propagation in microstructured fibres or waveguides. Dispersion properties and optical nonlinearities are exploited for pulse shaping techniques in space, time, and frequency. Investigated microstructures include silica or soft-glass templates, gas-filled capillaries, and semiconductor-filled fibres, and optical wavelengths range from the X-ray to the mid-infrared regime.

Nonlinear Optics in Structured Material

Peter Horak, Neil Broderick (Investigators)

Structured materials such as photonic crystals, optical fibres, Bragg gratings etc. are the ideal material for nonlinear optics. Properly engineered materials allows one to control which nonlinear interactions are observed and enhanced whilst other nonlinear interactions can be neglected. This work looks both at fundamental ideas as well as the fabrication of devices for advanced telecommunications.

OCCASION: Overcoming Capacity Constraints - A Simulation Integrated with Optimisation for Nodes

Tolga Bektas (Investigator)

OCCASION is a collaboration between TRG and the Schools of Mathematics and Management. The project's objective is to identify and investigate innovative methods of increasing the capacity of nodes (i.e. junctions and stations) on the railway network, without substantial investment in additional infrastructure. To this end, a state-of-the-art review of recent and ongoing work in this area will be conducted, followed by the development of tools to (i) assess existing levels of capacity utilisation at nodes, and (ii) investigate options for re-routeing and re-scheduling trains, with a view to reducing capacity utilisation levels. These tools will be used in combination to develop solutions delivering reduced levels of capacity utilisation, and thus increases in capacity and/or service reliability. Incremental changes to existing railway technologies (e.g. improved points) and operating practice (e.g. relaxations of the Rules of the Plan) will be investigated, as will concepts from other modes (e.g. road and air transport) and sectors (e.g. production scheduling).

On the applicability of nonlinear timeseries methods for partial discharge analysis

Paul Lewin (Investigator), Lyuboslav Petrov

The governing processes of Partial Discharge (PD)
phenomena trigger aperiodic chains of events resulting in ’ap-
parently’ stochastic data, for which the widely adopted analysis
methodology is of statistical nature. However, it can be shown,
that nonlinear analysis methods can prove more adequate in
detecting certain trends and patterns in complex PD timeseries.
In this work, the application of nonlinear invariants and phase
space methods for PD analysis are discussed and potential pitfalls
are identified. Unsupervised statistical inference techniques based
on the use of surrogate data sets are proposed and employed for
the purpose of testing the applicability of nonlinear algorithms
and methods. The Generalized Hurst Exponent and Lempel Ziv
Complexity are used for finding the location of the system under
test on the spectrum between determinism and stochasticity. The
algorithms are found to have strong classification abilities at
discerning between surrogates and original point series, giving
motivation for further investigations.

OpenDreamKit

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Marijan Beg

OpenDreamKit is a [Horizon 2020](https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/) European Research Infrastructure project (#676541) that will run for four years, starting from September 2015. It will provide substantial funding to the open source computational mathematics ecosystem, and in particular popular tools such as LinBox, MPIR, SageMath, GAP, Pari/GP, LMFDB, Singular, MathHub, and the IPython/Jupyter interactive computing environment.

Operational Simulation of the Solent Search-and-Rescue environment

James Scanlan, Kenji Takeda, Hans Fangohr (Investigators), Ben Schumann

This project aims to identify useful metrics for a proposed Search-and-Rescue UAV and test it virtually in a realistic environment.

Optimisation of Acoustic Systems for Perceived Sound Quality

Jordan Cheer (Investigator), Daniel Wallace

Acoustic systems have traditionally been optimised on the basis of minimising an objective acoustic measure, such as sound pressure level. The project investigates the use of subjective measures of sound quality, such as "loudness", "harshness" etc. in optimisation algorithms.

Origins of Evolvability

Richard Watson, Markus Brede (Investigators), William Hurndall

This project examined the putative evolvability of a Lipid World model of fissioning micelles. It was demonstrated that the model lacked evlovability due to poor heritability. Explicit structure for micelles was introduced along with a spatially localised form of catalysis which increased the strength of selection as coupling between potential chemical units of heredity were reduced.

Porcupine Basin Project

Louise Watremez

The Porcupine Basin is a narrow failed rift, offshore SW Ireland, featuring extreme crustal thinning. The M61/2 survey (May 2004, T. Reston and B. O'Reilly) allowed for the acquisition of seismic refraction data across and along the basin, along 5 transects. The processing of the data along these transects will give us information about the crustal structure across the basin, faulting due to the crustal extension, nature of the upper-mantle, etc. This project is funded by Petroleum Infrastructure Programme (PIP).

Porous Media and Hydrothermal Circulation in Weakened Ocean Crust

Formation of oceanic crust is an interplay between magma and the cooling hydrothermal system above that its own heat drives. To understand this system we must understand where and how water circulates through the crust.

Ocean crust is riddled with faults and other permeable pathways along which water preferentially flows. We seek to use basic numerical models of circulation in porous media to understand how much of an influence on crust formation these anomalous features have, compared to the bulk, unfractured crust.

Precision study of critical slowing down in lattice simulations of the CP^{N-1} model

Jonathan Flynn, Andreas Juttner (Investigators), Andrew Lawson

This project involves the study of critical slowing down (CSD): a property that may arise when taking measurements in Monte Carlo simulations. In order to study and quantify this phenomenon we have performed extensive simulations of the CP^{N-1} model. By studying the properties of the Monte Carlo algorithms in this model, we hope to make algorithmic improvements that can then be employed in simulations of physical quantum field theories, such as in lattice quantum chromodynamics (lattice QCD).

Prediction of orifice flow flooding rates through generic orifices

Dominic Hudson, Ming-yi Tan (Investigators), Christian Wood, Adam Sobey

This presearch concentrates on the modelling of compartment flooding rates following the occurrence of damage in a ship's side shell. Typical state of the art flooding models use Torricelli’s formula to calculate flooding rates using a constant co-efficient of discharge (Cd). Based on Bernoulli’s theorem, turbulence and viscosity effects are not included using a Cd independent of damage shape or size. Previous work indicates that this assumption over-simplifies the problem to an extent where the flooding rates used for calculation are in error. This project will use CFD validated by experiment to calculate flooding rates for a large number of cases from which a 'krigged' response surface will be generated. Validity of the subsequent response surface will be interrogated.

Prediction of Psychopathology by MRT data

We aim to predict psychopathological outcomes in adults by functional brain data using multilevel regression and crossvaligdation strategies.

Preventing Alzheimer's Disease: A Multiphysics Simulation Approach

Neil Bressloff, Giles Richardson, Roxana-Octavia Carare (Investigators), Alexandra Diem

Experimental research has identified the causes of many diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease. However, finding an effective treatment is very cost- and time-intensive and sacrifices many animals and does not guarantee success. In this PhD project, we investigate the driving force of solute drainage in the brain using multiphysics simulations in order to identify possible ways of preventing dementia.

Probing the oligomeric state and interaction surface of Fukutin Transmembrane Domain in lipid bilayer via Molecular Dynamics simulations

Syma Khalid, Philip Williamson (Investigators), Daniel Holdbrook, Jamie Parkin, Nils Berglund, Yuk Leung

Fukutin Transmembrane Domain (FK1TMD) is localised to the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi Apparatus within the cell where it is believed to function as a glycosyltransferase. Its localisation within the cell is thought to be mediated by the interaction of its N-terminal transmembrane domain with the lipid bilayers surrounding these compartments, each of which possess a distinctive lipid composition. Studies have revealed that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of FK1TMD exists as dimer within dilauroylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and this interaction is driven by interactions between a characteristic TXXSS motif. Furthermore residues close to the N-terminus that have previously been shown to play a key role in the clustering of lipids are shown to play a key role in anchoring the protein in the membrane.

Pushing the Envelope of Planetary Formation and Evolution Simulations

Peter Bartram

A full understanding of the formation and the early evolution of the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems ranks among natural science's grand challenges, and at present, even the dominant processes responsible for generating the observed planetary architecture remain elusive.

pyQCD

Matthew Spraggs

A basic Python package to perform coarse lattice QCD simulations on desktop and workstation computers.

Quantifying Collective Construction

Seth Bullock (Investigator), Nicholas Hill

This was an initial investigation into how best to develop quantifying and discriminating measures of both the processes and results of collective construction.

Quantum Computation for Signal Detection in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Communication Systems

Lajos Hanzo (Investigator), Panagiotis Botsinis

Optimal, classic optimization processes in communication systems, such as signal detection, introduce an extremely high computational complexity in the system. Quantum computation offers the optimal equivalent algorithms in the quantum domain, with at least a quadratic degradation in complexity. Since quantum computers have still not been physically realized though, the quantum algorithms' simulation's complexity is higher than that of the optimal classic equivalents. Use of Iridis is essential in facilitating their simulation.

Real-time CFD for helicopter flight simulation

Kenji Takeda (Investigator), James Kenny

Project aims to show how real-time computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be used to improve the realism of helicopter flight simulators.

Relativistic multifluids

Ian Hawke (Investigator)

Multiphase flow is a central model in fluid dynamics. Its extension to relativity is crucial for tackling many astrophysics problems, and has fascinating mathematical features.

Renormalisation group approach to 1D cellular automata with large updating neighbourhoods

Iain Weaver, Adam Prugel-Bennett (Investigators)

We study self-similarity in one-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) by applying a real-space renormalisation technique to PCA with increasingly large updating neighbourhoods. By studying the flow about the critical point of the renormalisation, we may produce estimates of the spatial scaling properties of critical PCA.

Replication of Sayama Group Decision Model

Jason Noble (Investigator), Jonathan Gray

Replication of a model of group decision making from Sayama et al. (2011), with a revised methodology that alters a conclusion from the original paper.

Respiratory mask modeling

Jacques Ernes

Abaqus modelling of repiratory masks, bioengineering, Health sciences

SAVE: Solent Achieving Value through Efficiency

Patrick James, Ben Anderson (Investigators), Luke Blunden

Analysis of 15 minute electricity consumption and 10 second instantaneous power data from 4,000+ households in the Solent region collected over 3 years of a randomised control trial study.

Scalability of Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Geoff Merrett (Investigator), Davide Zilli

This project compares two broad classes of routing algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks, message flooding and single path, by means of a simulation model. In particular, we want to understand how the two scale in terms of energy efficiency on large networks of sensors.

Sediment Transfer and Erosion on Large Alluvial Rivers (STELAR-S2S)

Stephen Darby, Julian Leyland, Christopher Hackney (Investigators)

STELAR-S2S will provide the first comprehensive quantification of autogenic and climatic controls on riverine sediment fluxes for one of the world's largest rivers (the Mekong), leading to new generic understanding of the relationships between climatic variability, fluvial processes and sediment flux to deltaic zones and the ocean.

Selection pressure for language and theory-of-mind in monkeys

Jason Noble (Investigator)

To what extent are the alarm calls of putty-nosed monkeys likely to be a good model for human language evolution? Simulation is used to classify evolutionary trajectories as either plausible or implausible, and to put lower bounds on the cognitive complexity required to perform particular behaviours.

Self Interest & the Evolutionary Optimisation of Adaptive Trading Agents for Continuous Double Auctions

Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding (Investigators), Ash Booth

One cannot escape the recent crises in economics and the lack of understanding of financial markets that has been highlighted by them. Improvements to current market models are already being made and a realisation of the power of agent based modelling in such models is evident. In this project we seek to explore an existing model by Cliff of trader behaviour in continuous double auctions. We investigate the strategies that arise in such auctions when trader parameters are evolved with intent to maximise personal profit. Results show different trading strategies to those evolved by Cliff and explanations are given with regards to the self-interest.

Self Organized Network Routing using Quantum Evolutionary Methods

Lajos Hanzo (Investigator), Dimitrios Alanis

Self Organized Networks (SON) may consist of a large number of nodes, which could be fully interconnected. Optimizing its performance satisfying various Quality of Service (QoS) requirements is a quite complex procedure and the optimization problem belongs to the family of the Travelling Salesman Problems (TSP) which has been proven to be NP-hard as the number of nodes increases. In this project, various suboptimal methods are used in order to tackle this multi-objective optimization problem; in particular, the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and its quantum inspired counterpart (QACO) are being employed in order to reduce complexity.

Self-Force and Black Hole Inspirals

Sam Dolan (Investigator)

We use IRIDIS to compute the self-force acting on a solar-mass black hole orbiting a supermassive black hole.

Sensitivity of the critical depth to the choice of particle movement rules in Lagrangian models and the consequences for the predicted timing of the spring bloom

Tom Anderson (Investigator), Melissa Saeland

Individual-based (Lagrangian) models lend themselves to the study of the controls of the spring bloom in the ocean, due to their ability to represent both the turbulence and the phytoplankton motion. Here, we use a Lagrangian phytoplankton model to test some of the most prevalent hypotheses (e.g. critical depth and critical turbulence).

Separation of timescales in models of complex networks

Seth Bullock (Investigator), Elisabeth zu-Erbach-Schoenberg, Connor McCabe

In many real-world systems several processes act on the system state. The way these processes interact can have implications for the resulting system state. We investigate how separation of the timescales of two processes influences the system's equilibrium state.

Simulating Household Decision Making in Rural Malawi

James Dyke, Kate Schreckenberg (Investigators), Samantha Dobbie

A scoping exercise to determine whether data collection tools of the social sciences can be used effectively in the construction of empirical ABM. Focus fell upon simulating drought coping strategies of Malawian smallholders. Model implementation enabled inferences to be made concerning the impact of drought and input subsidies upon smallholder food security.

Simulating Human Expansion in the Early Pleistocene

Seth Bullock, Fraser Sturt (Investigators), Iza Romanowska

Using Agent-based modelling to investigate the first human dispersal almost 2 million years ago.

Simulating Hydro-geomorphic Changes in European Climate Hotspots

John Dearing (Investigator), Ying Wang

This project will simulate the behaviour of hydro-geomorphological processes in a fluvial system over decadal timescales is an important basis for research on catchment environmental management, especially with regards climate changes and human impacts on fluvial system.

Simulating Multi-Agent Negotiation with Agents that use Incomplete Information

Enrico Gerding (Investigator), Darius Pepe Falahat

An investigation into multi-agent negotiation where the participants have incomplete information about each other. This project consisted of a literature review and creating a simulation model based on the research being reviewed.

Simulating the Write Process in Perpendicular Magnetic Media

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Stuart Curtis

The project aims to use Nmag, a micromagnetics software package developed by the CMG to model the writing process in perpendicular magnetic recording.

Simulation modelling of habitat permeability for mammalian wildlife

Patrick Doncaster, Jason Noble (Investigators), Angela Watkins

Using and integrating least-cost models and agent-based simulations to explore the way in which mammals interact with, and hence move, through fragmented landscapes.

Simulation of biological systems at long length and distance scales

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Kieran Selvon

This project aims to shed light on cell membrane mechanisms which are difficult to probe experimentally, in particular drug permiation across the cell membrane. If one had a full understanding of the mechanism, drugs could be designed to target particular embedded proteins to improve their efficacy, the viability of nano based medicines and materials could also be assessed, testing for toxicity etc.

Simulation of Parking Choice Behaviour

Ben Waterson, Hans Fangohr (Investigators), James Snowdon

Exploring how psychological models of individual parking search behaviours can be combined into an accurate simulation of vehicle flows, allowing for assessment of the impact on searching traffic of different demand/ supply ratios, different driver population characteristics and different charging regimes.

Simulations investigating droplet diameter-charge models, for predicting electrostatically atomized dielectric liquid spray chracteristics

Gabriel Amine-Eddine (Investigator), John Shrimpton

Liquid sprays are atomized using electrostatic methods in many scienti fic, industrial and engineering applications. Due to jet and droplet breakup mechanisms, these spray plumes contain a range of drop diameters with differing droplet charge levels. Using an transient charged spray CFD code, simulations have been performed to investigate charge-diameter relationship models for predicting dynamics of poly-disperse and electrostatically atomized hydrocarbon sprays.

The methodology developed can be readily extended towards high-pressure spray applications, where secondary atomization plays a dominant role within the spray dynamics and subsequent performance of the spray itself.

Amine-Eddine, G. H. and Shrimpton, J. S. (2013), On simulations investigating droplet diameter–charge distributions in electrostatically atomized dielectric liquid sprays. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 72: 1051–1075. doi:10.1002/fld.3776

Simulations of Magnetic Skyrmions

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Ryan Pepper

The manipulation of magnetic skyrmions could prove to be a useful technique for storing data on an unprecedented density scale. In this project we seek to better understand their properties and ways to control them.

Skyrmionic states in confined helimagnetic nanostructures

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Marijan Beg

An ever increasing need for data storage creates great challenges for the development of high-capacity storage devices that are cheap, fast, reliable, and robust. Because of the fundamental constraints of today's technologies, further progress requires radically different approaches. Magnetic skyrmions are very promising candidates for the development of future low-power, high-capacity, non-volatile data storage devices.

Soft x-ray science on a tabletop

Peter Horak, Jeremy Frey, Bill Brocklesby (Investigators), Patrick Anderson, Arthur Degen-Knifton

Complex numerical simulations are being performed to aid experimentalists at Southampton realize the next generation of high brightness tabletop sources of coherent soft x-rays.


Software Sustainability Institute

Simon Hettrick (Investigator)

A national facility for cultivating world-class research through software

Software helps researchers to enhance their research, and improve the speed and accuracy of their results. The Software Sustainability Institute can help you introduce software into your research or improve the software you already use.

The Institute is based at the universities of Edinburgh, Manchester, Oxford and Southampton, and draws on a team of experts with a breadth of experience in software development, project and programme management, research facilitation, publicity and community engagement.

We help people build better software, and we work with researchers, developers, funders and infrastructure providers to identify key issues and best practice in scientific software.

Spatial Mobility in the Formation of Agent-Based Economic Networks

Antonella Ianni, Seth Bullock (Investigators), Camillia Zedan

An investigation into the effect of spatial mobility on endogenous economic network formation.

Spatially Embedded Complex Systems Engineering

Seth Bullock (Investigator)

SECSE brought together an interdisciplinary team of scientists working on an ambitious three-and-a-half year project titled. The research cluster spanned neuroscience, artificial intelligence, geography, and complex systems in an attempt to understand the role of spatial organization and spatial processes in complex networks within the domains of neural control, geo-information systems and distributed IT systems such as those implicated in air-traffic control.

Stability of chiral structures in magnetic nanodisks

Hans Fangohr, Weiwei Wang (Investigators), David Cortes

This project is aimed to study the stability of skyrmionic and helical equilibrium states in magnetic nanodisks, using computational simulations.

Statistical model of the knee

Mark Taylor (Investigator), Francis Galloway, Prasanth Nair

Development of methods for large scale computational testing of a tibial tray incorporating inter-patient variability.

Stochastic computational methods for aero-acoustics

Gwenael Gabard (Investigator), Martina Dieste

Stochastic methods are used to synthesize a turbulent flow which is then used to model the sound radiated by an airfoil interacting with this turbulence. This approach is faster than performing a complete simulation of the flow field.

Stratified combustion physics and modelling

Edward Richardson (Investigator)

Full-resolution simulation data for turbulent combustion are used to investigate the fundamental impact, and practical modelling, of fuel-air stratification.

Structured low-rank approximation

Ivan Markovsky

Today's state-of-the-art methods for data processing are model based. We propose a fundamentally new approach that does not depend on an explicit model representation and can be used for model-free data processing. From a theoretical point of view, the prime advantage of the newly proposed paradigm is conceptual unification of existing methods. From a practical point of view, the proposed paradigm opens new possibilities for development of computational methods for data processing.

Study of global instability in separated flows at high Mach number

Neil Sandham, Zhiwei Hu (Investigators), Kangping Zhang

Flow instability is observed when extending two-dimensional (2D) stable flow into three-dimensional (3D). Development of instability varies along different spanwise length. Thresholds are also discovered for the flow studied to become instable.

Studying microevolution in clinical isolates of Neisseria lactamica

Robert Read (Investigator), Jay Laver, Anish Pandey

We intranasally infected and successfully colonised six volunteers with Neisseria lactamica, a commensal species genetically similar to Neisseria meningitidis. A bioinformatics approach was then used to understand the microevolution of this bacterium and its adaptations to the nasopharynx.

Supernova Rates in the Local Universe

Mark Sullivan (Investigator), Christopher Frohmaier

This project will calculate the frequency of exploding stars -- or supernovae -- in the nearby universe. We simulate a 'toy universe' by exploding billions of stars in a computer, and then artificially 'observing' these explosions by replicating a real astronomical sky survey, the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). The results of this simulation allows us to discover the rate at which supernovae occur in the local universe each year.

Supersonic axisymmetric wakes

Richard Sandberg (Investigator)

Direct numerical simulations are used to shed more light on structure formation and evolution in supersonic wakes.

Surface moisture-induced feedback in aeolian environments

Joanna Nield (Investigator)

This project explores the importance of surface moisture for aeolian processes, particularly feedback between surface moisture and bedform sedimentation and migration.

Sustainable domain-specific software generation tools for extremely parallel particle-based simulations

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator)

A range of particle based methods (PBM) are currently used to simulate materials in chemistry, engineering, physics and biophysics. The 4 types of PBM considered directly in the proposed are molecular dynamics (MD), the ONETEP quantum mechanics-based program, discrete element modelling (DEM), and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH).
The overall research objective is to develop a sustainable tool that will deliver, in the future, cutting edge research applicable to applications ranging from dam engineering to atomistic drug design.

The application and critical assessment of protein-ligand binding affinities

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Ioannis Haldoupis

A method that can accurately predict the binding affinity of small molecules to a protein target would be imperative to pharmaceutical development due to the time and resources that could be saved. A head-to-head comparison of such methodology, ranging from approximate methods to more rigorous methods, is performed in order to assess their accuracy and utility across a range of targets.

The application of automated pattern metrics to surface moisture influences on modelled dune field development

Robin Wilson, Joanna Nield (Investigators)

Areas of sand dunes (known as dunefields) develop complex patterns over time. These are influenced by both the past and present environmental conditions, including surface moisture, vegetation distribution and human impact. This project develops a method of automated pattern analysis which allow the patterns produced by a large number of sand dune evolution simulations (performed using the DECAL model) to be quantified over time.

The effect of roughness upon turbulent supersonic flows

Neil Sandham (Investigator), Christopher Tyson

Understanding the interaction between surface roughness and supersonic air flows are crucial in the design of high speed vehicles, including space re-entry vehicles. Numerical simulations of these flows has been conducted in order to examine and understand how the surface roughness interacts with high speed flows in terms of drag prediction and heat transfer to the wall surface.

The Endogenous Formation of Economic Networks

Antonella Ianni, Seth Bullock (Investigators), Camillia Zedan

An investigation into endogenous network formation using a simple agent-based approach.

The Higgs Boson at Future Colliders - an Explorative Journey Beyond the Standard Model

Alexander Belyaev (Investigator), Patrick Schaefers

It has been three years since the discovery of a Higgs boson at the CERN LHC and many new insights in Higgs physics were gathered since then. However, its true nature remains unknown to this day. This project aims at exploring the Higgs properties at Future High Energy Colliders beyond the Standard Model to help unveiling its secret.

The hydrogen abstraction phase of the CYP-cyclohexene reaction, using large-scale DFT

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Chris Pittock, Karl Wilkinson

Studying the hydrogen-abstraction reaction between cyclohexene and the active site of cytochrome P450. This starts a series of reactions that eventually oxidise the small molecule to become either an epoxide or an alcohol.

Understanding the finer detail of this reaction can assist towards a model that will predict the breakdown of drugs in the human body.

The Maximum Entropy Production Principle and Natural Convection

Seth Bullock, James Dyke (Investigators), Stuart Bartlett

In this project I wanted to perform some tests of the so-called Maximum Entropy Production Principle (MEPP) in the context of buoyancy-driven convection in a system with negative feedback boundary conditions.

THE NORM MATE TRANSPORTER FROM N. GONORRHEAE: INSIGHTS INTO DRUG & ION BINDING FROM ATOMISTIC MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Daniel Holdbrook, Thomas Piggot, Yuk Leung

The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters extrude a wide variety of substrates out of both mammalian and bacterial cells via the electrochemical gradient of protons and cations across the membrane. Multiple atomistic simulation are performed on a MATE transporter, NorM from Neisseria gonorrheae (NorM_NG) and NorM from Vibrio cholera (NorM_VC). These simulations have allowed us to identify the nature of the drug-protein/ion-protein interactions, and secondly determine how these interactions contribute to the conformational rearrangements of the protein.

The ONETEP project

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Stephen Fox, Chris Pittock, Álvaro Ruiz-Serrano, Jacek Dziedzic

Program for large-scale quantum mechanical simulations of matter from first principles quantum mechanics. Based on theory and algorithms we have developed for linear-scaling density functional theory calculations on parallel computers.

The Origins of Communication Revisited

Jason Noble (Investigator), Jordi Arranz

Quinn (2001) sought to demonstrate that communication be- tween simulated agents could be evolved without pre-defined communication channels. Quinn’s work was exciting because it showed the potential for ALife models to look at the real origin of communication; however, the work has never been replicated. In order to test the generality of Quinn’s result we use a similar task but a completely different agent architecture. We find that qualitatively similar behaviours emerge, but it is not clear whether they are genuinely communicative. We extend Quinn’s work by adding perceptual noise and internal state to the agents in order to promote ritualization of the nascent signal. Results were inconclusive; philosophical implications are discussed.

The Perks of Complexity Reduction

Lajos Hanzo (Investigator), Chao Xu

Reliable high-speed modems facilitate ubiquitous communications in our daily lives amongst people and/or machines. The communication technologies we need for the future have to have a high reliability and a low cost. My research aims for reducing the complexity of state-of-the-art communication systems, so that they can communicate in real time at an increased throughput. Naturally having access to parallel computers such as Iridis gives my research a competitive advantage over other researchers, relying on slower simulations.

The Role of Information in Price Discovery

Antonella Ianni, Seth Bullock (Investigators), Camillia Zedan

The recent economic crisis has highlighted a continued vulnerability and lack of understanding in the financial markets. In order to overcome this, many believe that current market models must be improved. Recently, a trend towards agent-based modelling has emerged. Viewing the economy as a complex system is beginning to be seen as key to explaining certain market characteristics that were originally considered anomalies.

One of the fundamental assumptions in economics is that of information efficiency: that the price of a stock reflects its worth, that all possible information about a security is publicly known, and that any changes to price take place instantaneously. In reality, however, this is not the case.

This project considers the use of agents in modelling economic systems and demonstrates the effect of information levels on price discovery using a simple market simulation.

The Social-cognitive Niche: An Exploration of the Co-evolutionary Relationship between Human Mind and language, with a Particular Focus of the Self-organisational properties of the Emergence of Symbolic Representation.

Jason Noble, Glyn Hicks (Investigators), Lewys Brace

This work explored the relationship between the origin and subsequent evolution of the human mind and language; a relationship that is believed to be symbiotic in nature. This piece aimed to achieve two objectives. Firstly, it set out a theoretical framework, using the principles of complexity theory and self-organisation, which attempts to explain this relationship from a holistic perspective.

Secondly, it presented an agent-based model of a vervet monkey social group, which sought to investigate the variables that were perceived to underpin the emergence of symbolic representation within a population of language users.

The belief here was that, by understanding the influence of these variables, one would be able to better understand the genesis of the aforementioned relationship.

The tarsal intersegmental reflex control system in the locust hind leg

David Simpson, Philip Newland (Investigators), Alicia Costalago Meruelo

Locomotion is vital for vertebrates and invertebrates to survive. Despite that feet are responsible for stability and agility in most animals, research on feet movements and their reflexes is scarce.
In this thesis, the tarsal reflex responses of locust will be studied and modelled with ANNs to achieve a deeper comprehension of how stability and agility is accomplished.
The choice of ANNs is linked to the applicability of the method into other fields, such as technological designs or medical treatment.

The use of channel wings for slow speed UAV flight

Andy Keane (Investigator), Juraj Mihalik

In this project, advanced computational modeling and robust design optimization tools are used to observe the possibility of use of the Custer channel wings for slow speed UAV flights.

Tissue Engineering

Tiina Roose (Investigator)

This project deals with applying mathematical and computational modelling techniques to answer questions that are useful for tissue engineering applications.

Today's Computation Enabling Tomorrow's Seamless Communication

Lajos Hanzo (Investigator), Varghese Thomas

Radio Over Fibre (ROF) is a communication technique that aims to gainfully amalgamate the benefits of optical and wireless communication, while keeping the system cost low. This technique would support the next generation of wireless services.

Towards biologically-inspired active-compliant-wing micro-air-vehicles

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Sonia Serrano-Galiano

Despite a good knowledge of the physiology of bats and birds, engineering applications with active dynamic wing compliance capability are currently few and far between. Recent advances in development of electroactive materials together with high-fidelity numerical/experimental methods provide a foundation to develop biologically-inspired dynamically-active wings that can achieve "on-demand" aerodynamic performance. However this requires first to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic coupling between the electro-mechanical structure of the membrane wing and its unsteady aerodynamics. In this collaborative initiative between the University of Southampton and Imperial College London, we are developing an integrated research programme that carries out high-fidelity experiments and computations to achieve a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of aero-electro-mechanical coupling in dynamically-actuated compliant wings. The goal is to utilise our understanding and devise control strategies that use integral actuation schemes to improve aerodynamic performance of membrane wings. The long-term goal of this project is to enable the use of soft robotics technology to build integrally-actuated wings for Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) that mimic the dynamic shape control capabilities of natural flyers.

Towards design patterns for robot swarms

Richard Crowder, Seth Bullock (Investigators), Lenka Pitonakova

Swarm robotics is an inter-disciplinary field that seeks to design the behaviour of robots that can cooperate effectively on tasks like search and retrieval, reconnaissance, construction, etc. In this project, we are aiming towards a theoretical understanding of swarm intelligence and the development of design patterns for effective robot swarms.

Towards Exascale computing in particle physics

Andreas Juttner, Jonathan Flynn (Investigators), James Harrison

Lattice QCD

Transition to turbulence in high-speed boundary layers

Neil Sandham (Investigator), Nicola De Tullio

This work is focused on the numerical simulation of hypersonic transition to turbulence in boundary layers. We use direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to analyse the effects of different flow conditions and external disturbances on the transition process. The main objective is to gain insight into the different aspects of transition to turbulence at high speeds, which can lead to the design of new transition models and transition control techniques for high-speed flows.

Traveling and movement during European Late Prehistory

Patricia Murrieta Flores

This project has as main purpose to investigate through spatial analysis and computational modelling the variables and factors that influenced how humans traveled during prehistoric times.
One of the principal objectives will be to clarify the role that certain landscape elements (i.e megalithic monuments) played in terrestrial navigation and territorial definition.

This project is supported by CONACYT (Mexico) as a doctoral research by Patricia Murrieta-Flores under the supervision of Dr. David Wheatley (University of Southampton) and Dr. Leonardo Garcia Sanjuan (University of Seville, Spain). It also counts with the collaboration of Dr. Dimitrij Mlekuz (Gent University, Belgium).

Uncertainty quantification and propagation through complex chains of computational models

Dave Woods (Investigator), Stephen Gow

This project will explore how predictions can be made and assessed through complex chains of computer models.

Understanding Stochastic Processes in Interacting Spin Models

Ondrej Hovorka (Investigator), Oliver Laslett

Applying efficient computational models to compute Langevin dynamics and master equation equilibrium solutions for interacting magnetic spin systems.

Understanding the Role of Recruitment in Robot Foraging

Seth Bullock, Richard Crowder (Investigators), Lenka Pitonakova

It is shown that recruitment among foraging robots is useful when resources are hard to find, but that the extra cost associated with such robots is not returned when there are many locations to gather from or simply when the relative gain from using communication is low.

Using computer intensive methods to produce small area estimates of poverty

Nikolaos Tzavidis (Investigator), Steve Donbavand

By using computer intensive methods this work compares, and suggests improvements, to existing methods for estimating poverty levels. These poverty estimates are used to produce maps which in turn help to target government policies.

Using Molecular Dynamics to Understand the Antibacterial Mechanisms of Daptomycin & Chlorhexidine to Target the Bacterial Membrane

This project aims to use molecular dynamics techniques to understand how antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin and chlorhexidine, disrupt both gram positive and negative cell membranes on an atomic level.

Using Molecular Dynamics to Understand the Antibacterial Mechanisms of Daptomycin & Chlorhexidine to Target the Bacterial Membrane

This project aims to use molecular dynamics techniques to understand how antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin and chlorhexidine, disrupt both gram positive and negative cell membranes on an atomic level.

Using Molecular Dynamics to Understand the Antibacterial Mechanisms of Daptomycin & Chlorhexidine to Target the Bacterial Membrane

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Eilish McBurnie

This project aims to use molecular dynamics techniques to understand how antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin and chlorhexidine, disrupt both gram positive and negative cell membranes on an atomic level.

Validation of a spatial-temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

Tiina Roose, Sevil Payvandi (Investigators), James Heppell

We develop a model that estimates the water saturation level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. Data from Smethurst et al (2012) is used to validate our model and obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake. When compared quantitatively to other models such as CROPWAT, our model achieves a better fit to the experimental data because of the simpler, first, second and third order terms present in the boundary condition, as opposed to complicated non-linear functions.

Variability in high pressure blade trailing edge geometry and its impact on stage capacity and blade temperature

Andy Keane (Investigator), Jan Kamenik

My project involves the trailing edge (TE) geometry of gas turbine high pressure turbine blades, which is subject to inevitable variability due to the manufacturing processes involved.

Vibrational spectroscopy from ab initio molecular dynamics

Hans Fangohr, Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigators), Valerio Vitale

In this project I used the Fourier transform of the time correlation function (FTTCF) formalism, that allows to compute the vibrational spectra of molecules both in gas and condensed phase, at finite temperature, in a single ab initio molecular dynamics simulation.

Vortex Dynamics in High-Tc superconductors

Hans Fangohr (Investigator)

The dynamics of vortices in high temperature superconductors exhibits the complex and rich physics we expect from many body systems with competing interactions. Molecular Dynamics, Langevin Dynamics and Monte Carlo Computer simulations are carried out to understand this system in more detail.

Vortices in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates

Janne Ruostekoski (Investigator), Justin Lovegrove

We numerically study the effect of spin degrees of freedom on the structure of a vortex in an atomic superfluid. Such objects are of interest as macroscopic examples of quantum phenomena, as well as for their analogies in other fields, such as cosmology and high energy physics.

Water Molecules in Protein Binding Sites

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Michael Bodnarchuk

Water molecules are commonplace in protein binding sites, although the true location of them can often be hard to predict from crystallographic methods. We are developing tools which enable the location and affinity of water molecules to be found.

Wave-based discontinuous Galerkin methods

Gwenael Gabard (Investigator), Greg Kennedy

Wave-based computational methods are developed to model sound propagation in moving inhomogeneous media.

Whisky Code

Ian Hawke (Investigator)

A 3D finite volume code for simulating compact relativistic hydrodynamics.

Wind direction effects on urban flows

Zheng-Tong Xie, Ian Castro (Investigators), Jean Claus

Numerical simulations of turbulent air flow are conducted on Iridis to investigate the effects of different wind directions on the flow within and above an urban-like canopy.

You Can Chop Off My Head If You'll Let Me Return the Blow: Being a Game Theory Primer for the Non-technical Audience.

Jason Noble (Investigator), Lewys Brace

Game theory is a subject area that has, since it’s conception, become influential in a number of fields, ranging from its ‘stomping grounds’ in economics, through to evolutionary biology.
The aim of this paper was to provide the reader with a theoretical understanding of the basic concepts that one often encounters within the wider scientific literature, in a non-technical manner. To this end, this paper discussed its subject matter with the aid of examples that most people would be familiar with, and which do not require any specialist knowledge to interpret. This was deemed to be a useful way in which to develop an understanding of these concepts and their significance.

µ-VIS Computed Tomography Centre

Ian Sinclair, Richard Boardman, Dmitry Grinev, Philipp Thurner, Simon Cox, Jeremy Frey, Mark Spearing, Kenji Takeda (Investigators)

A dedicated centre for computed tomography (CT) at Southampton, providing complete support for 3D imaging science, serving Engineering, Biomedical, Environmental and Archaeological Sciences. The centre encompasses five complementary scanning systems supporting resolutions down to 200nm and imaging volumes in excess of one metre: from a matchstick to a tree trunk, from an ant's wing to a gas turbine blade.