Computational Modelling Group

Simulation software

Categories within this topic include Abaqus (9), Actran (1), Aimsun (1), AMBER (9), Ansys (4), AnyLogic (2), CAESAR (1), CASTEP (4), COMSOL (13), Delft3D (1), Finmag (5), FLOWer (1), Fluent (2), GAMESS(US) (1), Gromacs (14), HiPSTAR (9), MASON (2), NEMO (1), NetLogo (5), Nmag (10), NWCHEM (3), Onetep (11), OpenFOAM (12), ProtoMS (4), Repast Simphony (3), Schrodinger Suite (1), Sentaurus TCAD (1), Shelddon (1), SPICE (1), Star CCM+ (6), StarCD (5), TELEMAC (1)

All Projects

A spatially-explicit agent-based model of jaguar population dynamics

Jason Noble, Patrick Doncaster (Investigators), Angela Watkins

A single species spatially-explicit agent-based model has been developed that illustrates the role of simulation modelling, integrated with an adapted least-cost modelling approach and real-world geographical data, in exploring jaguar population dynamics.

A step toward establishing minimum requirement for CFD modelling of dispersion from floating roof tanks

Zheng-Tong Xie, Ian Castro (Investigators)

It is of great importance to estimate an emission flux (due to leaking from an oil tank) from near field wake, which requires a better understanding of vortex shedding from the tank, in particularly in how the low frequency motion behaves. Large-eddy simulation approaches embedded in up-to-date CFD package will be used for this purpose. This project has a strong link with Concawe and U Surrey.

Ab initio simulations of chemical reactions on platinum nanoparticles

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Álvaro Ruiz-Serrano, Peter Cherry

•Use first principles calculations to study the relationship between shape and size of nanoparticle and the oxygen adsorption energy.

• Investigate the effect of high oxygen coverage on the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles.

An investigation in to the effects of information provision on driver learning

Ben Waterson, Hans Fangohr (Investigators), James Snowdon

This work aims to better understand and model the role of individual learning and experience on driver route choice. We intend to demonstrate that vehicle-driver agent based models stand alone in being able to capture the complex reciprocal interactions between drivers and their environment, and allow us to incorporate the effects of prior knowledge from previous trips and advice from official information sources and social networks.

Antimicrobial Peptide and E. coli Membrane Interactions

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Thomas Piggot, Nils Berglund

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are known to disrupt the membranes of bacterial cells such as E. coli. I work on investigating the nature of these interactions using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

Assessment of the performance of novel RANS and hybrid turbulence models on the flow around a cylinder

Manuel Diaz Brito

The turbulent flow around a circular cylinder is a widely studied problem in fluid dynamics. At a certain characteristic Reynolds numbers the development of a turbulent wake occurs simultaneously with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The mechanisms defining this critical flow state are very complex to predict computationally. In this project the suitability of novel non-linear eddy viscosity closures and a hybrid Flow Simulation Methodology formulation to face these massively separated flows is studied. The flow predicting capabilities of the baseline EASM, φ-α-EASM and FSM-φ-α-EASM tested are contrasted with the industrial renowned k-ω-SST turbulence model. In the visualisation of the results it is evident that the φ-α-EASM has greater flexibility estimating the components of the Reynolds stresses with respect to the baseline EASM and the k-ω-SST. Although dome differences are observed, the prediction of the critical flow around a cylinder is not accurately achieved by any of these RANS models, but the FSM-φ-α-EASM shows great resemblance with the validation data, demonstrating capabilities of resolving very complex flow phenomena with minimum user input if the computational grid is fine enough. In order to demonstrate even greater advantages of non-linear models it was postulated that the addition of a streamwise impinging vortex hitting the leading edge of the cylinder would make the flow field fully three-dimensional. First attempts were tried in this route but time constraints limited the ultimate scope of the present work.

BioSimGrid

Jonathan Essex, Hans Fangohr (Investigators), Richard Boardman, Syma Khalid, Steven Johnston

The aim of the BioSimGrid project is to make the results of large-scale computer simulations of biomolecules more accessible to the biological community. Such simulations of the motions of proteins are a key component in understanding how the structure of a protein is related to its dynamic function.

Can we calculate the pKa of new drugs, based on their structure alone?

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Chris Pittock, Jacek Dziedzic

The pKa of an active compound in a pharmaceutical drug affects how it is absorbed and distributed around the human body. While there are various computational methods to predict pKa using only molecular structure data, these tend to be specialised to only one class of drug - we aim to generate a more generalised prediction method using quantum mechanics.

Care Life Cycle

Seth Bullock, Sally Brailsford, Jason Noble, Jakub Bijak (Investigators), Elisabeth zu-Erbach-Schoenberg, Jason Hilton, Jonathan Gray

This research programme brings together teams of researchers from social sciences, management science and complexity science to develop a suite of models representing the socio-economic and demographic processes and organisations implicated in the UK’s health and social care provision. Integral to the project is working with our partners in the public sector and communicating the results of these models to policymakers allowing them to effectively plan for the future.

Centre for Doctoral Training in Next Generation Computational Modelling

Hans Fangohr, Ian Hawke, Peter Horak (Investigators), Susanne Ufermann Fangohr, Ryan Pepper, Hossam Ragheb, Emanuele Zappia, Ashley Setter, David Lusher, Alvaro Perez-Diaz, Kieran Selvon, Thorsten Wittemeier, Mihails Milehins, Stephen Gow, Ioannis Begleris, Jonathon Waters, James Harrison, Joshua Greenhalgh, Rory Brown, Robert Entwistle, Paul Chambers, Jan Kamenik, Craig Rafter

The £10million Centre for Doctoral Training was launched in November 2013 and is jointly funded by EPSRC, the University of Southampton, and its partners.

The NGCM brings together world-class simulation modelling research activities from across the University of Southampton and hosts a 4-year doctoral training programme that is the first of its kind in the UK.

CFD for urban environments

Zheng-Tong Xie, Ian Castro (Investigators), Venkata Boppana

As part of the NERC’s National Centre for Atmospheric Science, we are continuing on the modeling of wind flows around buildings and through streets, and the consequent dispersion of pollutants and heat transfer.
In collaboration with CD-adapco, one of the ‘big three’ CFD code vendors.

Chaotic Analysis of Partial Discharge

Paul Lewin (Investigator), Lyuboslav Petrov

The deterministic character of PD pulses predicted by theory has been shown to be existent for certain PD events. Finding characteristic patterns in phase space enables field-data PD detection with high reliability.

Complexity in Modelling Electric Marine Propulsive Devices

Suleiman Sharkh, Neil Bressloff, Hans Fangohr (Investigators), Aleksander Dubas

This project involves the simulation of turbulent flow around a marine rim-driven thruster and the complex interaction of flow features involved through computational fluid dynamics. Following this, the optimisation of design parameters using computational fluid dynamics to calculate the objective function is performed and surrogate modelling utilised to estimate optimum design configuration.

Computational Fluid Dynamics of Compressor Blades Within a Gas Turbine Engine (HiPSTAR)

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), John Leggett

As modern engines become more and more efficient, the importance of understanding the finer details of the physics involved grows, if further gains are to be achieved. In such harsh enviroments, such as within a gas turbine engine, there are few means of studying them physicaly and we are left with little choice but to use super computers to model the flow.

Continuously Tunable Optical Buffer

Peter Horak (Investigator)

The project aims to design, fabricate and test a novel integrated all-optical buffer device that is based on MEMS technology and provides a continuously tunable delay for optical pulses over a broad wavelength region. Such a device could play a crucial role in future packet-switched optical networks, photonic integrated circuits and coherent light based applications such as optically steered phase array antennas, LIDAR and optical coherence tomography.

This EPSRC funded project is a collaboration between the Optoelectronics Research Centre, Southampton, and University College London.

Coronary Artery Stent Design for Challenging Disease

Neil Bressloff (Investigator), Georgios Ragkousis

In this work, a method has been setup to (i) reconstruct diseased patient specific coronary artery segments; (ii) use the new supercomputer to run many simulations of this complex problem and (iii) assess the degree of stent malapposition. The aim now is to devise a stent delivery system that can mitigate this problem

Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction to model Three-Dimensional Dynamic Behaviour of Ships in Waves

Pandeli Temarel, Zhi-Min Chen (Investigators), Puram Lakshmynarayanana

In the present study we focus our attention on fluid-structure interactions (FSI) of flexible marine structures in waves by coupling a fluid solver using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural solver using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software.

CRISIS – Complexity Research Initiative for Systemic InstabilitieS

Frank McGroarty (Investigator), Bob De Caux

A new approach to modelling and understanding financial system and macroeconomic risk and instability

DePuy Technology Partnership

Mark Taylor (Investigator), Adam Briscoe

This initiative concerns the transfer of knowledge between three key institutions (University of Southampton, University of Leeds and University of Hamburg) and DePuy International limited. The project is concerned with the ongoing advancement of technology used in orthopaedic devices.

Designer 3D Magnetic Mesostructures

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Matteo Franchin, Andreas Knittel

A new electrodeposition self-assembly method allows for the growth of well defined mesostructures. This project's aim is to use this method in order to fabricate supraconducting and ferromagnetic mesostructures. Numerical methods based on well-established models are used in order to characterise the grown structures.

Development of a novel Navier-Stokes solver (HiPSTAR)

Richard Sandberg (Investigator)

Development of a highly efficient Navier-Stokes solver for HPC.

Development of wide-ranging functionality in ONETEP

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Jacek Dziedzic

ONETEP is at the cutting edge of developments in first principles calculations. However, while the fundamental difficulties of performing accurate first-principles calculations with linear-scaling cost have been solved, only a small core of functionality is currently available in ONETEP which prevents its wide application. In this collaborative project between three Universities, the original developers of ONETEP will lead an ambitious workplan whereby the functionality of the code will be rapidly and significantly enriched.

DIPLOS - Dispersion of Localised Releases in a Street Network

Trevor Thomas, Ian Castro (Investigators)

The security threat level from international terrorism, introduced by the UK Security Service, has been classified as either "severe" or "critical" for much of its six-year history, and currently remains as "substantial" (source: MI5 website). Part of the risk posed by terrorist threats involves potential releases of air-borne chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) material into highly populated urbanised areas. Smoke from industrial accidents within or in the vicinity of urban areas also pose risks to health and can cause widespread disruption to businesses, public services and residents. The Buncefield depot fire of 2005 resulted in the evacuation of hundreds of homes and closure of more than 200 schools and public buildings for two days; consequences would have been much more severe if prevailing meteorological conditions had promoted mixing or entrainment of the smoke plume into the urban canopy. In both these scenarios it is crucial to be able to model, quickly and reliably, dispersion from localised sources through an urban street network in the short range, where the threat to human health is greatest. However, this is precisely where current operational models are least reliable because our understanding and ability to model short-range dispersion processes is limited. The contribution that DIPLOS will make is:

1. to fill in the gaps in fundamental knowledge and understanding of key dispersion processes,
2. to enable these processes to be parametrized for use in operational models,
3. to implement them into an operational model, evaluate the improvement and apply the model to a case study in central London

Most of the existing research on urban dispersion has focused on air quality aspects, with sources being extensive and distributed in space. Scientifically, this research is novel in focusing on localized releases within urban areas, and on dispersion processes at short range. Through a combination of fundamental studies using wind tunnel experiments and high resolution supercomputer simulations, extensive data analysis and development of theoretical and numerical models, DIPLOS will contribute to addressing this difficult and important problem from both a scientific research and a practical, operational perspective.

Dipole moment and theoretical spectroscopy: a computational approach

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Valerio Vitale

The present project represents a first step towards the implementation of a new technique to calculate the whole vibrational spectra of molecules in a formally exact way, which fully takes into account anharmonicity and conformational transitions, at a finite temperature, both in gas phase and in solution in a single ab initio molecular dynamics simulation.

Direct Numerical Simulations of transsonic turbine tip gap flow

Richard Sandberg (Investigator)

Direct Numerical Simulations are conducted of the transsonic flow through the tip gap at real engine conditions.

Directing magnetic skyrmion traffic flow with nanoscale patterning.

Hans Fangohr, Ondrej Hovorka (Investigators), Mark Vousden

Skyrmions in magnetic nanostructures may lead to new data storage technologies. Appropriate simulation methodologies are developed and applied.

Dynamag: computational magnonics

Hans Fangohr, Atul Bhaskar (Investigators), Matteo Franchin, Andreas Knittel

Analytical treatment of long range magneto-dipole interactions is a bottle-neck of magnonics and more generally of the theory of spin waves in non-uniform media. This project develops a theoretical framework for analysis of magnonic phenomena in magnetic nano-structures, including isolated nano-elements, arrays of those, and extended magnonic crystals. The DYNAMAG project is funded by the EU FP7 and the DST of India.

Dynamics of interacting magnetic nanoparticles

Thomas Fischbacher (Investigator), Maximilian Albert

The project aims at extending the micromagnetic simulation framework 'nmag' developed at the University of Southampton to enable it to handle dynamic geometries. The extended framework will then be used to study systems such as interacting magnetic nanoparticles.

Eddy-resol​ving Simulation​s for Turbomachi​nery Applicatio​ns

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Li-Wei Chen

Traditionally, the design of turbomachinery components has been exclusively accomplished with steady CFD, with Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models being the predominant choice. With computing power continuously increasing, high-fidelity numerical simulations of turbomachinery components are now becoming a valuable research tool for validating the design process and continued development of design tool.
In the current project, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and other eddy-resolving approaches will be performed of turbomachinery components to establish benchmark data for design tools, and to investigate physical mechanisms that cannot be captured by traditional CFD approaches.

Effects of trailing edge elasticity on trailing edge noise

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Stefan C. Schlanderer

This work considers the effect of trailing edge elasticity on the acoustic and hydrodynamic field of a trailing edge flow. To that end direct numerical simulations that are fully coupled to a structural solver are conducted.

Electrostatic embedded energy calculations of proteins, using the ONETEP DFT code

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Stephen Fox, Chris Pittock

Calculating the energy of a biomolecule in solvent, using quantum mechanics (QM) is possible, but extremely challenging, even with linear-scaling QM methods like ONETEP. Using electrostatic embedding, a novel twist on the existing QM/MM method is used to calculate the binding energy of a small ligand to a solvated protein, increasing the accuracy and realism of our general project work.

Evaluation of Vortex Shedding effects on Slender Structures using Large-Eddy Simulation

Zheng-Tong Xie, Ian Castro (Investigators), Steven Daniels

Wind-induced vortex shedding on buildings is a main concern for the engineer, as this can lead to severe structural failures, or at the very least fatigue concerns. Wind tunnel testing of this effect is somewhat limited with the generation of turbulent flow, making the use of numerical techniques more appealing. Using Iridis3&4, Computational Fluid Dynamics has been employed to simulate the turbulent wind flow around tall buildings and bridge decks. The research proposes novel numerical techniques for the analysis of vortex induced effects on these structures for an effective use in industry.

Excitable Boys: An Exploration of the Role of Social Groups in the Self-radicalisation Process Using Agent-based Modelling.

Jason Noble (Investigator), Lewys Brace

This work built upon the seminal work of Sageman (2008), and his hypothesis that the self-radicalisation phenomenon that we are currently witnessing across Europe and the United States stems from self-organising ‘bunches of guys’. More specifically, there was a focus on how individuals can influence one another through social links; and how this can lead to behaviour, similar to deindividuation, arising through their interactions. Complexity theory and agent-based modelling were used in order to explore the interactions that are believed to lie at the heart of this psycho-social phenomenon, and justification is given for this approach. The model presented demonstrated that social bonds can lead to a greater number of individuals ‘rebelling’ against the status quo.

Feasibility Study of the Impacts of Proposed Tidal Array Installations in Channel Islands

Luke Blunden (Investigator), William Batten

Open source hydrodynamic modelling software TELEMAC is being used to see whether putting a large number of tidal turbines in the sea near a headland-associated sandbank will affect the feature's long term equilibrium.

First Principles Simulation of Glycine Adsorption to Amorphous Silica

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Benjamin Lowe

Understanding the molecular interactions between silica and biomolecules is an important in the fields of Bionanotechnology, Biomimetic Material Science and Prebiotic Chemistry. DFT calculations were performed based on a literature study to better understand the interaction between silica and glycine.

Fluid Dynamics Optimisation of Rim-Drive Thrusters and Ducted Hydrokinetic Generators

Aleksander Dubas, Suleiman Sharkh (Investigators)

This is a Knowledge Transfer Partnership project is a collaboration between the University of Southampton and TSL Technology Ltd. to develop computational fluid dynamics software design tools for modelling and optimising the design of propeller thrusters and water turbine generators.

Fluid Loads and Motions of Damaged Ships

Dominic Hudson, Ming-yi Tan (Investigators), Christian Wood, James Underwood, Adam Sobey

An area of research currently of interest in the marine industry is the effect of damage on ship structures. Research into the behaviour of damaged ships began in the mid nineties as a result of Ro-Ro disasters (e.g. Estonia in 1994). Due to the way the Estonia sank early research mainly focused on transient behaviour immediately after the damage takes place, the prediction of capsize, and of large lateral motions. Further research efforts, headed by the UK MoD, began following an incident where HMS Nottingham ran aground tearing a 50m hole from bow to bridge, flooding five compartments and almost causing the ship to sink just off Lord Howe Island in 2002. This project intends to answer the following questions:
“For a given amount of underwater damage (e.g. collision or torpedo/mine hit), what will be the progressive damage spread if the ship travels at ‘x’ knots? OR for a given amount of underwater damage, what is the maximum speed at which the ship can travel without causing additional damage?”

Fluid Structure Interactions of Yacht Sails

Stephen Turnock (Investigator), Daniele Trimarchi

The research is the main subject of the PhD topic. It regards the application of fluid structure interaction techniques to the domain of yacht sails simulation

Generic Operational Simulation of Civil Unmanned Air Vehicle Operations

Hans Fangohr, James Scanlan (Investigators)

This project creates a generic operational simulation of Unmanned Air Vehicle Operations. UAVs can be valued for their mission-suitability and compared against various configurations.

Homogenisation of liquid crystal colloids

Giampaolo D'Alessandro, Keith Daly (Investigators), Thomas Bennett

We use homogenization thoery to obtain macroscopic governing equations for nematic liquid crystals that host arbitrarily shaped nano particles.

How far can we stretch the MARTINI?

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Ric Gillams

To date, coarse-grained lipid models have generally been parameterised to ensure the correct prediction of structural properties of membranes, such as the area per lipid and the bilayer thickness. The work described here explores the extent to which coarse-grained models are able to predict correctly bulk properties of lipids (phase behaviour) as well as the mechanical properties, such as lateral pressure profiles and stored elastic stress in bilayers. Such an evaluation is crucial for understanding the predictive capabilities of coarse-grained models.

How sensitive is ocean model utility to resolution?

Kevin Oliver (Investigator), Maike Sonnewald

One of the most intriguing problems in recent ocean modeling research is the impact of varying model resolution on model accuracy. Increasing model resolution one includes more of the important processes. However, the increase in accuracy with resolution is unlikely to be linear. Thus, as computational cost increases with resolution, a critical assessment of achieved benefits is prudent. Here we analyse a suite of realistic and compatible global ocean model runs from coarse (1o, ORCA1), eddy-permitting (1/4o, ORCA025) and eddy resolving (1/12o, ORCA12) resolutions. Comparisons of steric height variability (varSH) highlight changes in ocean density structure, revealing impacts on mechanisms such as downwelling and eddy energy dissipation. We assess vertical variability using the covariace of the deep and shallow varSH. Together with assessing isopycnal movements, we demonstrate the influence of deep baroclinic modes and regions where the barotropic flow sheds eddies. Significant changes in the deepwater formation and dispersion both in the Arctic and Antarctic are found between resolutions. The varSH increased from ORCA1 to ORCA025 and ORCA12, particularily in the Southern Ocean and Western Boundary Currents. However, there is no significant covariance between the surface and deep in ORCA1, while ORCA025 and ORCA12 show significant covariance, implying an important missing energy pathway in ORCA1. Comparing ORCA025 and ORCA12 we see significant differences in eddy energy dissipation. We assess the impact of varying model resolution on the mean flow, discussing implications to dissipation pathways on model accuracy, with reference to stochastic parameterisation schemes.

Hybrid quantum and classical free energy methods in computational drug optimisation

Jonathan Essex, Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigators), Christopher Cave-Ayland

This work is based around the application of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics to the field of computational drug design and optimisation. Through the application of these theories the calculation of the physical properties of drug-like molecules is possible and hence some predictive power for their pharmaceutical activity in vivo can be obtained.

Hybrid RANS/LES methods

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Markus Weinmann

Novel hybrid RANS/LES methods are developed for more accurate and efficient simulation of flow over complex geometries.

Image Based Modelling of Fluid Flow through Lymph Nodes

Tiina Roose, Bharathram Ganapathisubramani, Geraldine Clough (Investigators), Laura Cooper

In this project we are using images of mouse lymph nodes to investigate the fluid transport pathways through it. The images of the nodes are taken using selective plane illumination microscopy, and synchrotron micro computed tomography. The fluid flow is modelled using Darcy's law in COMSOL Multiphysics and the models are run on the Iridis cluster.

Immunotherapy Research: Modelling MHC Class I Complex Assembly

Timothy Elliott, Jorn Werner (Investigators), Alistair Bailey

This project uses mathematical modelling and simulation to investigate mechanisms by which our cells process and present biological information that is used by our immune system to distinguish between healthy and diseased cells.

Integrating least-cost models with agent-based simulations: example hedgehog responses to fragmented landscapes

Jason Noble, Patrick Doncaster (Investigators), Angela Watkins

This study presents a novel analysis of an agent-based model of hedgehog movements integrated with a least-cost model of hedgehog dispersal and validated in landscapes with a varying degree of habitat fragmentation. A comparison of the fitness of individual agents reveals that incorporating a simple rule into
individual agents, to better mimic movement choices by real hedgehogs, dramatically affects the relationship between individual fitness and fragmentation.

Investigation into the Interfacial Physics of Field Effect Biosensors

Nicolas Green, Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigators), Benjamin Lowe

This interdisciplinary research aims to improve understanding of Field Effect Transistor Biosensors (Bio-FETs) and to work towards a multiscale model which can be used to better understand and predict device response.

Investigation of acoustic radiation forces on micro-particles and cells in ultrasonic particle manipulation

Martyn Hill (Investigator), Puja Mishra

A Finite Element model is developed to investigate the force generated on a particle of arbitrary geometry and composition in a sound field. The model overcame the drawbacks of existing analytical solutions of size restriction and provided the flexibility of particle representation. This suggested useful results on shape dependency, effect of elasticity of particle and dominancy of nucleus in a cell in estimating the force on a single particle.

Investigation of gas adsorption of metal-organic frameworks using quantum mechanics and Monte Carlo simulation

Jia Huo (Investigator)

Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has received much attention in the field of gas storage/separation, catalysis, etc, due to their highly ordered porosity, high surface area, multi functionality, chemically talorability and high loading of meta sites. Experimental method has contributed to these areas, but there are still plenty of problems not solved solely from experiment, including investigation of mechanism of adsorption and screening MOFs for target-specific applications.  In this project, we plan to use quantum mechanics and Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the various guest adsorption properties on MOFs to screen the substrates catalysed by active sites within MOFs and the influence of transition metal sites of MOFs on gas adsorption for design of MOFs with high gas storage capacity.

Investigations of Lymphatic Fluid Flow

Tiina Roose, Bharathram Ganapathisubramani, Geraldine Clough (Investigators), Laura Cooper

The lymphatic system performs three main roles returns interstitial fluid back into the blood stream to maintain tissue fluid homeostasis. The aim of this project is to increase our understanding of how the lymph flows through the system by creating three dimensional fluid structure interaction models of the secondary lymphatic valves and image based models of lymph nodes.

Is fine-scale turbulence universal?

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Patrick Bechlars

Complementary numerical simulations and experiments of various canonical flows will try to answer the question whether fine-scale turbulence is universal.

Jet noise

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Neil Sandham

Direct numerical simulations are used to investigate jet noise.

Lagrangian modelling of ecosystem dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station

Tom Anderson, Seth Bullock (Investigators), Melissa Saeland

Focus in the marine ecosystem modelling community is starting to shift towards the use of Lagrangian, agent-based models as these are believed to produce more realistic results. The basic assumptions behind these models have not been thoroughly tested, and this project aims to undertake a detailed study of Lagrangian marine ecosystem models, before creating one to investigate the dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station (BATS).

Laminar to Turbulent Transition in Hypersonic Flows

Neil Sandham, Heinrich Luedeke

Understanding of laminar to turbulent transition in hypersonic boundary-layer flows is crucial for re-entry vehicle design and optimization. The boundary-layer state directly affects the temperatures on the vehicle surface and its viscous drag. Therefore transition has to be considered to correctly compensate for drag and to properly design the thermal protection system.
For the proposed study, in order to obtain a clear understanding of the transition process, the configuration is kept as simple as possible by varying only a minimum number of parameters affecting transition on a simple test geometry such as a swept ramp at different sweep angles. To investigate the influence of such sweep angles on the transition process in the hypersonic regime, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the turbulent flow field are carried out on the Iridis cluster.

Large-Scale Quantum Chemistry Simulations of Organic Photovoltaics

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Gabriele Boschetto

The aim of this project is to use first principles quantum mechanical calculations to provide a detailed atomic-level understanding of OPV materials and models of bulk heterojunctions on a far larger scale than possible before by using the ONETEP program for linear-scaling first principles quantum mechanical calculations.

Life assessment methods for industrial steam turbine blade to disc interfaces

Katherine Soady (Investigator)

This is an EngD project sponsored by E.ON New Build and Technology Ltd. which aims to develop the methods currently implemented in life assessment of industrial steam turbine blade to disc interfaces to take account of the surface treatment process (shot peening) which is applied to component before service and after repair.

Lyotropic phase transitions of lipids studied by CG MD simulation and experimental techniques

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Josephine Corsi

A study of the phase behaviour of cationic lipid - DNA complexes such as those used for transfection by coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. Lipid systems studied include DOPE, DOPE/DNA and DOPE/DOTAP/DNA. Structural parameters and phase behaviour observed computationally have been compared with those gained using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and polarising light microscopy techniques.

Magnon-Driven Domain-Wall Dynamics in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Weiwei Wang

The domain wall motion induced by spin waves (magnons) in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction is studied in this project.

Mathematical modelling of plant nutrient uptake

Tiina Roose (Investigator)

In this project I will describe a model of plant water and nutrient uptake and how to translate this model and experimental data from the single root scale to the root branching structure scale.

Membrane-Protein Interactions: The Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Pin-Chia Hsu

The aim of the project is to looking for the interaction sites, which may responsible for turning on/off activity in outer membrane protein with gram-negative bacteria membrane using molecular dynamic (MD) approach.

Microstructural modeling of skin mechanics

Georges Limbert (Investigator), Emanuele Zappia

Microstructural modeling of skin mechanics to gain a mechanistic insight into the biomechanics of the skin.

Modelling mechanoreceptor reaction to tissue deformation

Mark Taylor (Investigator), Gwen Palmer

This project involved the modelling of a piece of knee joint capsule, which will produce an electrical output when mechanically stimulated. The model is based on expermental work carried out by P. Grigg and A.H. Hoffman (1982).

Modelling micromagnetism at elevated temperature

Hans Fangohr, Kees de Groot, Peter de_Groot (Investigators), Dmitri Chernyshenko


We aim to develop a multiscale multiphysics model of
micromagnetism at elevated temperatures with atomistic simulations for
material parameter. The tool will be used to guide the development of the next generation magnetic data storage technology: heat assisted magnetic recording.

Modelling neuronal activity at the knee joint

Mark Taylor, Tiina Roose (Investigators), Gwen Palmer

The function of the knee joint is reliant on proprioception, which involves the response of nerve endings in the tissues at the joint. This project will be concentrating on the neuronal activity, caused by mechanical stimuli, of the more common receptors found at the knee (Ruffini, Paciniform, Golgi and Nociceptor).

There are three stages to this project:
1. Modelling the behaviour of each individual receptor, with the use of the Hodgkin-Huxley model [1].
2. These models will then be applied to the soft tissues around a knee, where a global deformation of the tissue will result in local stimulation of receptors.
3. The soft tissue models will then be applied to structures in the knee.

[1] - Hodgkin, A.L. and A.F. Huxley, A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. Journal of Physiology, 1952. 117: p. 500-544.

Modelling power output and wake effects in tidal stream turbine arrays

William Batten (Investigator), Matthew Harrison, Luke Blunden

The PhD research is regards the investigation of modelling techniques for simplifying turbine simulation so that models of large arrays can be investigated.

Modelling the Combined Effects of Total Ionizing Dose and Random Dopant Fluctuations in sub-100 nm gate-length Transistors

Kees de Groot (Investigator), Eleni Chatzikyriakou

The radiation hardness of state-of-the-art silicon-on-insulator transistors of gate length dimensions of 90 nm and beyond is investigated. The combined effects of oxide charges and random fluctuations of the dopant atoms in silicon are considered. It is demonstrated that a parasitic channel forms at the interface of buried oxide and shallow trench isolation regions of the device and that this effect is aggravated by random dopant fluctuations.

Modelling the morphodynamic evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta over centennial time scales

Stephen Darby (Investigator), Balaji Angamuthu

Around 0.5 Billion people live in deltaic environments where they are threatened by flooding and land loss frequently. Yet, our understanding of the threats posed by land dynamic process remains limited. In this work, we try to address this issue through a land dynamic simulation of the largest and most populated of all the deltas, the GBM Delta, using the CFD software Delft3D for a range of climate change and management scenarios. The results provide new insight into the factors controlling past morphodynamics that, in turn, are helpful when assessing the possible trajectories of future evolution.

Molecular Fragments in Inhibitor Design

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Michael Bodnarchuk

Fragment-Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) has emerged as an important tool in the drug discovery process. Instead of screening entire drug molecules, FBDD screens molecular fragments; constituents which make up drug molecules. A computational approach to identifying fragment binding is currently being sought which also yield binding free energy estimation.

Multi-objective design optimisation of coronary stents

Neil Bressloff, Georges Limbert (Investigators), Sanjay Pant

Stents are tubular type scaffolds that are deployed (using an inflatable balloon on a catheter), most commonly to recover the shape of narrowed (diseased) arterial segments. Despite the widespread clinical use of stents in cardiovascular intervention, the presence of such devices can cause adverse responses leading to fatality or to the need for further treatment. The most common unwanted responses of inflammation are in-stent restenosis and thrombosis. Such adverse biological responses in a stented artery are influenced by many factors, including the design of the stent. This project aims at using multi-objective optimisation techniques to find an optimum family of coronary stents which are more resistant to the processes of in-stent restenosis (IR) and stent thrombosis (ST).

Multi-scale simulations of bacterial outer-membrane proteins

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Jamie Parkin

Using Iridis to run multiple simulations, I aim to simulate the outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using X-ray crystal structures of proteins only recently resolved by Bert van den Berg, University of Massachusetts. By modelling the proteins in a realistic P. aeruginosa outer membrane, I aim to gain insight into the binding of these proteins to specific substrates and their function.

nano-CMOS

Mark Zwolinski (Investigator), Michael Merrett

Modelling random device variations within systems using nano-CMOS technologies.

Nmag - computational micromagnetics

Hans Fangohr, Thomas Fischbacher (Investigators), Matteo Franchin, Andreas Knittel, Maximilian Albert, Dmitri Chernyshenko, Massoud Najafi, Richard Boardman

Nmag is a micromagnetic simulation package based on the general purpose multi-physics library nsim. It is developed by the group of Hans Fangohr and Thomas Fischbacher in the School of Engineering Sciences at the University of Southampton and released under the GNU GPL.

Nmag finite difference

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Dmitri Chernyshenko, Matteo Franchin, Massoud Najafi

The goal of this project is to extends the finite element based micromagnetic simulation tool Nmag by the finite difference based extension Nmagfd and so to get an simulation tool where the user can easily switch between the used discretization method.

Nonlinear Optical Pulse Propagation

Peter Horak, Francesco Poletti (Investigators)

The work is concerned with the propagation of high-power short-pulse propagation in microstructured fibres or waveguides. Dispersion properties and optical nonlinearities are exploited for pulse shaping techniques in space, time, and frequency. Investigated microstructures include silica or soft-glass templates, gas-filled capillaries, and semiconductor-filled fibres, and optical wavelengths range from the X-ray to the mid-infrared regime.

Nonlinear Optics in Structured Material

Peter Horak, Neil Broderick (Investigators)

Structured materials such as photonic crystals, optical fibres, Bragg gratings etc. are the ideal material for nonlinear optics. Properly engineered materials allows one to control which nonlinear interactions are observed and enhanced whilst other nonlinear interactions can be neglected. This work looks both at fundamental ideas as well as the fabrication of devices for advanced telecommunications.

OMSys Towards a system model of a bacterial outer membrane

Syma Khalid (Investigator)

Many bacteria have an outer membrane which is the interface between the cell and its environment. The components of this membrane are well studied at an individual level, but there is a need to model and understand the outer membrane as a whole. In this project we aim to develop such a model of a bacterial outer membrane, linking computer simulations of the component molecules through to a more "systems biology" approach to modelling the outer membrane as a whole. Such an approach to modelling an OM must be multi-scale i.e. it must embrace a number of levels ranging from atomistic level modelling of e.g. the component proteins through to higher level "agent-based" modelling of the interplay of multiple components within the outer membrane as a whole. The different levels of description will be integrated to enable predictive modelling in order to explore the roles of outer membrane changes in e.g. antibiotic resistance.

Prediction of orifice flow flooding rates through generic orifices

Dominic Hudson, Ming-yi Tan (Investigators), Christian Wood, Adam Sobey

This presearch concentrates on the modelling of compartment flooding rates following the occurrence of damage in a ship's side shell. Typical state of the art flooding models use Torricelli’s formula to calculate flooding rates using a constant co-efficient of discharge (Cd). Based on Bernoulli’s theorem, turbulence and viscosity effects are not included using a Cd independent of damage shape or size. Previous work indicates that this assumption over-simplifies the problem to an extent where the flooding rates used for calculation are in error. This project will use CFD validated by experiment to calculate flooding rates for a large number of cases from which a 'krigged' response surface will be generated. Validity of the subsequent response surface will be interrogated.

Preventing Alzheimer's Disease: A Multiphysics Simulation Approach

Neil Bressloff, Giles Richardson, Roxana-Octavia Carare (Investigators), Alexandra Diem

Experimental research has identified the causes of many diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease. However, finding an effective treatment is very cost- and time-intensive and sacrifices many animals and does not guarantee success. In this PhD project, we investigate the driving force of solute drainage in the brain using multiphysics simulations in order to identify possible ways of preventing dementia.

Probing the oligomeric state and interaction surface of Fukutin Transmembrane Domain in lipid bilayer via Molecular Dynamics simulations

Syma Khalid, Philip Williamson (Investigators), Daniel Holdbrook, Jamie Parkin, Nils Berglund, Yuk Leung

Fukutin Transmembrane Domain (FK1TMD) is localised to the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi Apparatus within the cell where it is believed to function as a glycosyltransferase. Its localisation within the cell is thought to be mediated by the interaction of its N-terminal transmembrane domain with the lipid bilayers surrounding these compartments, each of which possess a distinctive lipid composition. Studies have revealed that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of FK1TMD exists as dimer within dilauroylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and this interaction is driven by interactions between a characteristic TXXSS motif. Furthermore residues close to the N-terminus that have previously been shown to play a key role in the clustering of lipids are shown to play a key role in anchoring the protein in the membrane.

Reforging the Wedding Ring: Exploring a Semi-Artificial Model of Population for the United Kingdom with Gaussian process emulators

Jason Hilton

Note: Jakub Bijak from Social Science is the lead author on this project, which is forthcoming in Demographic Research (http://www.demographic-research.org/)
Co-Authors: Eric Silverman, Viet Dung Cao

We extend the „Wedding Ring‟ agent-based model of marriage formation to include some empirical information on the natural population change for the United Kingdom together with behavioural explanations that drive the observed nuptiality trends.

Respiratory mask modeling

Jacques Ernes

Abaqus modelling of repiratory masks, bioengineering, Health sciences

Reversal of ferromagnetic nanotubes

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), David Cortes

We are analysing the feasibility of reversing a nano scaled magnetic tube by applying weak pulses of currents through the nano-tube inner core

Simulating Household Decision Making in Rural Malawi

James Dyke, Kate Schreckenberg (Investigators), Samantha Dobbie

A scoping exercise to determine whether data collection tools of the social sciences can be used effectively in the construction of empirical ABM. Focus fell upon simulating drought coping strategies of Malawian smallholders. Model implementation enabled inferences to be made concerning the impact of drought and input subsidies upon smallholder food security.

Simulating Hydro-geomorphic Changes in European Climate Hotspots

John Dearing (Investigator), Ying Wang

This project will simulate the behaviour of hydro-geomorphological processes in a fluvial system over decadal timescales is an important basis for research on catchment environmental management, especially with regards climate changes and human impacts on fluvial system.

Simulating the Write Process in Perpendicular Magnetic Media

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Stuart Curtis

The project aims to use Nmag, a micromagnetics software package developed by the CMG to model the writing process in perpendicular magnetic recording.

Simulations of Magnetic Skyrmions

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Ryan Pepper

The manipulation of magnetic skyrmions could prove to be a useful technique for storing data on an unprecedented density scale. In this project we seek to better understand their properties and ways to control them.

Skyrmionic states in confined helimagnetic nanostructures

Hans Fangohr (Investigator), Marijan Beg

An ever increasing need for data storage creates great challenges for the development of high-capacity storage devices that are cheap, fast, reliable, and robust. Because of the fundamental constraints of today's technologies, further progress requires radically different approaches. Magnetic skyrmions are very promising candidates for the development of future low-power, high-capacity, non-volatile data storage devices.

Statistical model of the knee

Mark Taylor (Investigator), Francis Galloway, Prasanth Nair

Development of methods for large scale computational testing of a tibial tray incorporating inter-patient variability.

Supersonic axisymmetric wakes

Richard Sandberg (Investigator)

Direct numerical simulations are used to shed more light on structure formation and evolution in supersonic wakes.

Sustainable domain-specific software generation tools for extremely parallel particle-based simulations

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator)

A range of particle based methods (PBM) are currently used to simulate materials in chemistry, engineering, physics and biophysics. The 4 types of PBM considered directly in the proposed are molecular dynamics (MD), the ONETEP quantum mechanics-based program, discrete element modelling (DEM), and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH).
The overall research objective is to develop a sustainable tool that will deliver, in the future, cutting edge research applicable to applications ranging from dam engineering to atomistic drug design.

The application and critical assessment of protein-ligand binding affinities

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Ioannis Haldoupis

A method that can accurately predict the binding affinity of small molecules to a protein target would be imperative to pharmaceutical development due to the time and resources that could be saved. A head-to-head comparison of such methodology, ranging from approximate methods to more rigorous methods, is performed in order to assess their accuracy and utility across a range of targets.

The hydrogen abstraction phase of the CYP-cyclohexene reaction, using large-scale DFT

Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigator), Chris Pittock, Karl Wilkinson

Studying the hydrogen-abstraction reaction between cyclohexene and the active site of cytochrome P450. This starts a series of reactions that eventually oxidise the small molecule to become either an epoxide or an alcohol.

Understanding the finer detail of this reaction can assist towards a model that will predict the breakdown of drugs in the human body.

THE NORM MATE TRANSPORTER FROM N. GONORRHEAE: INSIGHTS INTO DRUG & ION BINDING FROM ATOMISTIC MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Daniel Holdbrook, Thomas Piggot, Yuk Leung

The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters extrude a wide variety of substrates out of both mammalian and bacterial cells via the electrochemical gradient of protons and cations across the membrane. Multiple atomistic simulation are performed on a MATE transporter, NorM from Neisseria gonorrheae (NorM_NG) and NorM from Vibrio cholera (NorM_VC). These simulations have allowed us to identify the nature of the drug-protein/ion-protein interactions, and secondly determine how these interactions contribute to the conformational rearrangements of the protein.

Towards biologically-inspired active-compliant-wing micro-air-vehicles

Richard Sandberg (Investigator), Sonia Serrano-Galiano

Despite a good knowledge of the physiology of bats and birds, engineering applications with active dynamic wing compliance capability are currently few and far between. Recent advances in development of electroactive materials together with high-fidelity numerical/experimental methods provide a foundation to develop biologically-inspired dynamically-active wings that can achieve "on-demand" aerodynamic performance. However this requires first to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic coupling between the electro-mechanical structure of the membrane wing and its unsteady aerodynamics. In this collaborative initiative between the University of Southampton and Imperial College London, we are developing an integrated research programme that carries out high-fidelity experiments and computations to achieve a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of aero-electro-mechanical coupling in dynamically-actuated compliant wings. The goal is to utilise our understanding and devise control strategies that use integral actuation schemes to improve aerodynamic performance of membrane wings. The long-term goal of this project is to enable the use of soft robotics technology to build integrally-actuated wings for Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) that mimic the dynamic shape control capabilities of natural flyers.

Turbulence and tidal turbines

William Batten (Investigator), Tom Blackmore, Luke Blunden

The PhD research is focused on understanding the effects of turbulence on tidal turbines. The problem has been simplified using grid generated turbulence and actuator disc representations of tidal turbines.

Using Molecular Dynamics to Understand the Antibacterial Mechanisms of Daptomycin & Chlorhexidine to Target the Bacterial Membrane

This project aims to use molecular dynamics techniques to understand how antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin and chlorhexidine, disrupt both gram positive and negative cell membranes on an atomic level.

Using Molecular Dynamics to Understand the Antibacterial Mechanisms of Daptomycin & Chlorhexidine to Target the Bacterial Membrane

This project aims to use molecular dynamics techniques to understand how antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin and chlorhexidine, disrupt both gram positive and negative cell membranes on an atomic level.

Using Molecular Dynamics to Understand the Antibacterial Mechanisms of Daptomycin & Chlorhexidine to Target the Bacterial Membrane

Syma Khalid (Investigator), Eilish McBurnie

This project aims to use molecular dynamics techniques to understand how antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin and chlorhexidine, disrupt both gram positive and negative cell membranes on an atomic level.

Vertical turbulence structures in the benthic boundary layer as related to suspended sediments

Hachem Kassem (Investigator), Charlie Thompson

There is a genuine need for better, more robust modelling of suspended sediment transport in the coastal zone, both to understand its morphological evolution and it's impact on biogeochemical cycling, ecosystems services and to guide engineering applications such as dredging and defence schemes against erosion and flooding.
The suspension of sediment in turbulent flows is a complex case of fluid-particle interaction, governed by shear stresses (momentum exchanges) at the bed and within the benthic boundary layer (BBL). The intermittent transfer of momentum is a manifestation of coherent turbulent vortex structures within the flow. The passage of such structures (or clusters of) is often related to perturbations of bottom sediment, which may be entrained and maintained in suspension if sufficient turbulent energy is provided. The first part of my PhD investigated the temporal and scale relationships between wave–generated boundary layer turbulence and event–driven sediment transport in oscillatory flow in the nearshore. This involved complex statistical, spectral, quadrant and wavelet analysis of high frequency nearshore measurements of turbulence and suspended sediments (medium sand), collected as part of the EU-funded Barrier Dynamics Experiment II (BARDEX II). The following step aims to develop a 3D numerical model in OpenFOAM which would reproduce the fine scale turbulence structures observed over a fixed rippled bed in oscillatory flow. The 3D velocity field, turbulent components, correlations (stresses) and quadrant structures will then be linked to observed sediment resuspension events. The model will be validated against a set of laboratory experiments undertaken at the Fast Flow Facility at HR Wallingford.

Vibrational spectroscopy from ab initio molecular dynamics

Hans Fangohr, Chris-Kriton Skylaris (Investigators), Valerio Vitale

In this project I used the Fourier transform of the time correlation function (FTTCF) formalism, that allows to compute the vibrational spectra of molecules both in gas and condensed phase, at finite temperature, in a single ab initio molecular dynamics simulation.

Water molecules in drug development: can we predict drug affinity when water molecules are involved?

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Hannah Bruce Macdonald, Christopher Cave-Ayland

Water molecules are often found to be involved in drug-protein binding and can influence the effectiveness of a drug. We aim to aid drug design by calculating the energies involved with complexes of drugs, proteins and water molecules to predict the affinities of drug molecules.

Water Molecules in Protein Binding Sites

Jonathan Essex (Investigator), Michael Bodnarchuk

Water molecules are commonplace in protein binding sites, although the true location of them can often be hard to predict from crystallographic methods. We are developing tools which enable the location and affinity of water molecules to be found.

Wave-based discontinuous Galerkin methods

Gwenael Gabard (Investigator), Greg Kennedy

Wave-based computational methods are developed to model sound propagation in moving inhomogeneous media.

Wind direction effects on urban flows

Zheng-Tong Xie, Ian Castro (Investigators), Jean Claus

Numerical simulations of turbulent air flow are conducted on Iridis to investigate the effects of different wind directions on the flow within and above an urban-like canopy.

Wind Turbine Blade Flow in Abnormal Environments

Zheng-Tong Xie (Investigator), Yusik Kim

Large wind turbines are being installed throughout UK and often in regions with complex meteorology and/or topography (e.g. involving wind gusts, turbulence, icing), which affect turbine performance (energy output, noise emission etc), life expectancy and safety. It is very expensive to conduct experiments to study such problems. This proposal suggests, firstly, an LES study of low-Re flows around an oscillating airfoil, to investigate the transition, separation, vortex shedding and dynamic stall behaviour. Secondly, a combined LES-RANS approach (with, e.g., a transitional RANS model in the near wall region) will be carefully designed (using our recently developed efficient turbulence generator at the interface between LES and RANS) and validated against low-Re results.