## Pylab

Matplotlib (also known as Pylab) is a python 2D plotting library which produces publication quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms. matplotlib can be used in python scripts, the python and ipython shell (not too dissimilar from matlab or mathematica), web application servers, and six graphical user interface toolkits.

Matplotlib tries to make easy things easy and hard things possible. It can generate plots, histograms, power spectra, bar charts, errorcharts, scatterplots, etc, with just a few lines of code. For a sampling, see the screenshots, thumbnail gallery with source code, and examples directory. (More from Matplotlib home page.)

The image has been produced using this code

For queries about this topic, contact Hans Fangohr.

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### Projects

### A Mathematical Analysis of the Driving Force of Perivascular Drainage in the Brain

**Giles Richardson, Roxana-Octavia Carare** (Investigators),
Alexandra Diem

The observation that solute drainage in the brain occurs in the reverse direction of the blood flow has for a long time been puzzling for researchers. We developed a simple analytical model that can explain this reverse drainage of solutes and has potential implications for the development of treatment for Alzheimer's Disease.

### A novel method for monitoring air pollution from satellites at very high resolution

**Joanna Nield, Jason Noble, Edward Milton** (Investigators),
Robin Wilson

Developing methods to monitor the clarity of the atmosphere from satellites at 100,000 times the resolution of previous methods. This can then be used to monitor air pollution, correct satellite images and provide data for climate studies. Simulation is used to model the effects of atmospheric pollution on light passing through the atmosphere, and to test the method under 'synthetic atmospheres'.

### Ab initio simulations of chemical reactions on platinum nanoparticles

**Chris-Kriton Skylaris** (Investigator),
Álvaro Ruiz-Serrano, Peter Cherry

•Use first principles calculations to study the relationship between shape and size of nanoparticle and the oxygen adsorption energy.

• Investigate the effect of high oxygen coverage on the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles.

### Automated Algorithmic Trading with Intelligent Execution

**Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding** (Investigators),
Ash Booth

In this project, we introduce the first fully automated trading system for real-world stock trading that uses time-adaptive execution algorithm to minimise market impact while increasing profitability com- pared to benchmark strategies.

### Automated Trading with Performance Weighted Random Forests and Seasonality

**Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding** (Investigators),
Ash Booth

This project proposes an expert system that uses novel machine learning techniques to predict the price return over these seasonal events, and then uses these predictions to develop a profitable trading strategy.

### Centre for Doctoral Training in Next Generation Computational Modelling

**Hans Fangohr, Ian Hawke, Peter Horak** (Investigators),
Susanne Ufermann Fangohr, Thorsten Wittemeier, Kieran Selvon, Alvaro Perez-Diaz, David Lusher, Ashley Setter, Emanuele Zappia, Hossam Ragheb, Ryan Pepper, Stephen Gow, Jan Kamenik, Paul Chambers, Robert Entwistle, Rory Brown, Joshua Greenhalgh, James Harrison, Jonathon Waters, Ioannis Begleris, Craig Rafter

The £10million Centre for Doctoral Training was launched in November 2013 and is jointly funded by EPSRC, the University of Southampton, and its partners.

The NGCM brings together world-class simulation modelling research activities from across the University of Southampton and hosts a 4-year doctoral training programme that is the first of its kind in the UK.

### Complexity in Modelling Electric Marine Propulsive Devices

**Suleiman Sharkh, Neil Bressloff, Hans Fangohr** (Investigators),
Aleksander Dubas

This project involves the simulation of turbulent flow around a marine rim-driven thruster and the complex interaction of flow features involved through computational fluid dynamics. Following this, the optimisation of design parameters using computational fluid dynamics to calculate the objective function is performed and surrogate modelling utilised to estimate optimum design configuration.

### Fluid Dynamics Optimisation of Rim-Drive Thrusters and Ducted Hydrokinetic Generators

**Aleksander Dubas, Suleiman Sharkh** (Investigators)

This is a Knowledge Transfer Partnership project is a collaboration between the University of Southampton and TSL Technology Ltd. to develop computational fluid dynamics software design tools for modelling and optimising the design of propeller thrusters and water turbine generators.

### Fracturing of small social networks

**Seth Bullock, Sally Brailsford** (Investigators),
Elisabeth zu-Erbach-Schoenberg

A connected social network is a very important factor for the success of groups and organisations. We investigate which factors make a group more resistant to the effects of disagreements which commonly happen in small social networks.

### Hunting for Walking Technicolor at the LHC

**Alexander Belyaev** (Investigator),
Azaria Coupe

Now that the LHC experiment at CERN has observed the Higgs boson, the final piece of the particle physics theory called the Standard Model, the focus of theoretical and experimental physicists shifts to what could possibly be discovered next. Phenomenologists, such as myself, straddle this line between theory and experiment, comparing the many theories of physics Beyond the Standard Model to whatever the LHC discovers, even drawing conclusions from what it doesn’t discover. I focus on a theory called Walking Technicolor (WTC), what the LHC would see if it were correct, and what the lack of discovery so far means for the fate of WTC.

### It takes all sorts: the mathematics of people’s behaviour in financial markets

**Valerio Restocchi** (Investigator),
Frank McGroarty, Enrico Gerding

Agent-based models provide a deeper understanding of financial markets than classic models. We model people's behaviour and use agent-based simulations to study financial markets. By analysing the emerging complex dynamics, we achieve a deeper understanding of market participants' behaviours, which are necessary for a deeper comprehension of financial markets themselves.

### Magnetic dynamics under the Landau-Lifshitz-Baryakhtar equation

**Hans Fangohr** (Investigator),
Weiwei Wang

Magnetic dynamics using the Landau-Lifshitz-Baryakhtar (LLBar) equation that the nonlocal damping is included as well as the scalar Gilbert damping.

### Multiscale Modelling of Cellular Calcium Signalling

**Hans Fangohr, Jonathan Essex** (Investigators),
Dan Mason

Calcium ions play a vitally important role in signal transduction and are key to many cellular processes including muscle contraction and cell apoptosis (cell death). This importance has made calcium an active area in biomedical science and mathematical modelling.

### OpenDreamKit

**Hans Fangohr** (Investigator),
Marijan Beg

OpenDreamKit is a [Horizon 2020](https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/) European Research Infrastructure project (#676541) provided substantial funding to the open source computational mathematics ecosystem, and in particular popular tools such as LinBox, MPIR, SageMath, GAP, Pari/GP, LMFDB, Singular, MathHub, and the IPython/Jupyter interactive computing environment.

### Origins of Evolvability

**Richard Watson, Markus Brede** (Investigators),
William Hurndall

This project examined the putative evolvability of a Lipid World model of fissioning micelles. It was demonstrated that the model lacked evlovability due to poor heritability. Explicit structure for micelles was introduced along with a spatially localised form of catalysis which increased the strength of selection as coupling between potential chemical units of heredity were reduced.

### Porous Media and Hydrothermal Circulation in Weakened Ocean Crust

Formation of oceanic crust is an interplay between magma and the cooling hydrothermal system above that its own heat drives. To understand this system we must understand where and how water circulates through the crust.

Ocean crust is riddled with faults and other permeable pathways along which water preferentially flows. We seek to use basic numerical models of circulation in porous media to understand how much of an influence on crust formation these anomalous features have, compared to the bulk, unfractured crust.

### Precision study of critical slowing down in lattice simulations of the CP^{N-1} model

**Jonathan Flynn, Andreas Juttner** (Investigators),
Andrew Lawson

This project involves the study of critical slowing down (CSD): a property that may arise when taking measurements in Monte Carlo simulations. In order to study and quantify this phenomenon we have performed extensive simulations of the CP^{N-1} model. By studying the properties of the Monte Carlo algorithms in this model, we hope to make algorithmic improvements that can then be employed in simulations of physical quantum field theories, such as in lattice quantum chromodynamics (lattice QCD).

### Predicting Available Energy in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

**Geoff Merrett** (Investigator),
Davide Zilli

Is it possible to predict how much energy a sun-light or wind powered wireless sensor node can harvest and tune its sensing pattern accordingly?

### Preventing Alzheimer's Disease: A Multiphysics Simulation Approach

**Neil Bressloff, Giles Richardson, Roxana-Octavia Carare** (Investigators),
Alexandra Diem

Experimental research has identified the causes of many diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease. However, finding an effective treatment is very cost- and time-intensive and sacrifices many animals and does not guarantee success. In this PhD project, we investigate the driving force of solute drainage in the brain using multiphysics simulations in order to identify possible ways of preventing dementia.

### Scalability of Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

**Geoff Merrett** (Investigator),
Davide Zilli

This project compares two broad classes of routing algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks, message flooding and single path, by means of a simulation model. In particular, we want to understand how the two scale in terms of energy efficiency on large networks of sensors.

### Simulating Sleeping Sickness: a two-host agent-based model

**Jason Noble, Peter Atkinson** (Investigators),
Simon Alderton

Sleeping sickness is a vector-borne, parastic disease which affects millions of people across 36 sub-Saharan African countries. Using agent-based models, we aim to gain a greater understanding of the interactions between the tsetse fly vector and both animal and human hosts.

Building an accurate representation will allow the testing of local interventation scenarios including the closing of watering holes, and the selective spraying of cattle with insecticides.

### Supernova Rates in the Local Universe

**Mark Sullivan** (Investigator),
Christopher Frohmaier

This project will calculate the frequency of exploding stars -- or supernovae -- in the nearby universe. We simulate a 'toy universe' by exploding billions of stars in a computer, and then artificially 'observing' these explosions by replicating a real astronomical sky survey, the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). The results of this simulation allows us to discover the rate at which supernovae occur in the local universe each year.

### Towards design patterns for robot swarms

**Richard Crowder, Seth Bullock** (Investigators),
Lenka Pitonakova

Swarm robotics is an inter-disciplinary field that seeks to design the behaviour of robots that can cooperate effectively on tasks like search and retrieval, reconnaissance, construction, etc. In this project, we are aiming towards a theoretical understanding of swarm intelligence and the development of design patterns for effective robot swarms.

### Wave-based discontinuous Galerkin methods

**Gwenael Gabard** (Investigator),
Greg Kennedy

Wave-based computational methods are developed to model sound propagation in moving inhomogeneous media.